2017 POP Conference
Oct 2-4, 2017 Houston, TX

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The Phases and Core Elements of Focused Deterrence

There are five general phases in most FDIs: 1. Program Planning and Implementation; 2. High-Risk Offender Selection; 3. High-Risk Offender Notification; 4. Enforcement/Service Delivery; and 5. Follow-Up Communication.13 The National Network for Safe Communities at John Jay College has produced a series of practice briefs and implementation guides providing detailed recommendations for the various aspects of planning and executing an FDI. See http://nnscommunities.org/our-work/all-guides for access to the briefs and guides. An additional phase—6. Assessment—is also strongly recommended to gauge the initiative’s fairness and effectiveness and to adapt the initiative accordingly. Figure 1 summarizes objectives for each phase, followed by descriptions of each phase’s core elements.

Figure 1. Phases and Core Elements of a Focused-Deterrence Initiative

PHASE OBJECTIVE

PHASE 1

Planning and Implimentation

  • Engage the community
  • Engage police personnel
  • Engage external partners to secure support and resource commitments
  • Establish clear program goals and objectives
  • Establish administrative infrastructure

PHASE 2

High-Risk Individual Selection

  • Develop and test a high-risk offender-selection methodology
  • Identify high-risk offender candidates
  • Select high-risk offenders

PHASE 3

High-Risk Individual Notification

  • Build rapport with high-risk individuals’ families, friends, and supporters
  • Invite high-risk offenders to the notification
  • Conduct the notification meeting

PHASE 4

Enforcement/Service Delivery

  • Carry out enforcement and prosecution for high-risk offenders who refuse to desist from offending
  • Provide services to high-risk offenders who desist from offending and request assistance

PHASE 5

Follow-Up Communication

  • Inform high-risk offenders and their criminal associates of consequences (positive or negative) that follow from compliance or noncompliance and why
  • Keep FDI partners informed about actions taken to penalize or assist high-risk offenders
  • Inform the general public about FDI principles and major actions and outcomes

PHASE 6

Assessment

  • Determine whether the FDI is being implemented as designed or intended
  • Determine whether the FDI is having the desired impact of reducing targeted crimes
  • Determine whether the FDI is perceived as fair