Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Endnotes

[1] U.S. Census Bureau News (2010).

[2] Associated Press (2010); Friedman (2003); Lucey (2010).

[3] Leinberger (2008).

[4] Homeownership Preservation Foundation (2005); National Vacant Properties Campaign (2005).

[5] Community Research Partners (2008); see Apgar (2005) for calculating direct city services.

[6] National Vacant Properties Campaign (2005).

[7] Associated Press (2010).

[8] Brantingham and Brantingham (1995).

[9] Brantingham and Brantingham (1995); Spelman (1993).

[10] Harcourt (2001); Keizer, Lindenberg, and Steg (2008); Kelling and Coles (1996); Sampson and Raudenbush (2001); Skogan (1990); Taylor (2010).

[11] Ross and Mirowsky (2001).

[12] Ward, LaGory, and Sherman (1986).

[13] Spelman (1993).

[14] Ahrens (2009); Federal Emergency Management Agency (2010); Hall (2007).

[15] Thomas, Butry, and Prestemon (2010).

[16] Peters (2008).

[17] American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (2009).

[18] Harding, Rosenblatt, and Yao (2009); Johnson (2008); National Vacant Properties Campaign (2005); Pinkston (2010).

[19] Eastern Pennsylvania Organizing Project and Temple University Center for Public Policy (2001).

[20] Cohen (2001); Reisen et al. (2008); Branas et al. (2011).

[21] Cohen et al. (2003).

[22] Totru et al. (2003).

[23] Black’s Law Dictionary (2009).

[24] National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth (2010).

[25] Wolf (2010).

[26] Immergluck and Smith (2005); Tripoli and Renuart (2005).

[27] Lopez (1999).

[28] Bess (2008); Goodstein and Lee (2010); Immergluck and Smith (2006); Madensen, Hart, and Miethe (2011); Stephens (n.d.); Wilson and Paulson (2010).

[29] Scafidi et al. (1998).

[30] Community Research Partners (2008).

[31] Clarke and Bichler-Robertson (1998).

[32] Anderson (1998).

[33] Mallach (2006).

[34] Richardson (2008).

[35] Schilling and Schilling (n.d.); Swope (1997).

[36] Blumberg, Blom, and Artigiani (1998).

[37] Donovan and Prestemon (2012); Kuo, Bacaicoa, and Sullivan (1998); Nasar and Fisher (1993).

[38] Zahm (2004)..

[39] Pierce and Steinbach (1990); Simon (2001).

[40] Roehl (1998); Samsa (2008).

[41] Pierce (2008).

[42] Schilling and Schilling (n.d.).

[43] U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (2004).

[44] U.S. Conference of Mayors (2008).

[45] Bell (2006).

[46] National Association of Realtors (2007).

[47] Alexander (2005); Samsa (2008); U.S. Conference of Mayors (2008).

[48] Accordino and Johnson (2000).

[49] Cunningham (2007); Indio Police Department (2009); Johnson (2008).

[50] U.S. Conference of Mayors (2008).

[51] Stephens (n.d.).

[52] International Association of Arson Investigators (n.d.); also see Mallach (2006).

[53] Mazerolle, Roehl, and Kadleck (1998).

[54] Chandler (1988); Wilson (1990).

[55] Spelman (1993).

[56] U.S. Conference of Mayors (2008).

[57] Glesner (1992).