Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Endnotes

[1] Batsche and Knoff (1994).

[2] U.S. Secret Service (2000). [Full Text ]

[3] Olweus (1978); an earlier edition was published in Swedish in 1973.

[4] Smith et al. (eds.) (1999); Farrington (1993); Smith and Brain (2000).

[5] U.S. Department of Education (1998).

[6] Olweus (1992).

[7] Olweus (1992); Rigby and Slee (1999); Ortega and Lera (2000); Salmivalli (1999); Farrington (1993).

[8] Nansel et al. (2001).

[9] Perry, Kusel and Perry (1988); Harachi, Catalano and Hawkins (1999), citing Bosworth, Espelage, DuBay, Dahlberg, and Daytner (1996); Hoover, Oliver and Hazler (1992); Olweus and Limber (1999), citing Melton, Limber, Cunningham, Osgood, Cambers, Flerx, Henggeler, and Nation (1998).

[10] Rigby and Slee (1999); Smith, Morita, Junger-Tas, Olweus, Catalano and Slee (1999).

[11] Farrington (1993), citing Whitney and Smith (1991).

[12] Clarke and Kiselica (1997).

[13] Hoover, Oliver and Hazler (1992); Australian students reported similarly [Rigby (1996)]. [Full Text ]

[14] Limber (1998), citing Hazler, Hoover and Oliver (1991).

[15] Salmivalli (1999); also see Olweus and Limber (1999).

[16] Salmivalli (1999); Stevens, Van Oost and De Bourdeaudhuij (2000), citing Pepler (1994).

[17] Clarke and Kiselica (1997).

[18] Rigby and Slee (1999). 19 Limber et al. (1998).

[19] Smith and Sharp (1994).

[20] Rigby and Slee (1999); Ortega and Lera (2000).

[21] Farrington (1993), citing Stephenson and Smith (1991), and Whitney and Smith (1991).

[22] Farrington (1993), citing Stephenson and Smith (1991), and Whitney and Smith (1991).

[23] Farrington (1993), citing Zeigler and Rosenstein-Manner ( 1991), and Stephenson and Smith (1991).

[24] Nansel et al. (2001).

[25] Farrington (1993), citing Ziegler and Rosenstein-Manner (1991).

[26] Home Office (1996).[Full Text ]

[27] Farrington (1993).

[28] Olweus (1978); Smith and Brain (2000); but see Bernstein and Watson (1997).

[29] Bernstein and Watson (1997).

[30] Farrington (1993).

[31] Farrington (1993) reporting on his earlier research.

[32] Farrington (1993).

[33] Rigby and Slee (1999).

[34] Junger-Tas and Van Kesteren (1999).

[35] Harachi, Catalano and Hawkins (1999).

[36] See generally Smith and Brain (2000) for a discussion of the research on this topic.

[37] See Harachi, Catalano and Hawkins (1999) for a discussion of these different avenues of recent bullying research.

[38] Stevens, De Bourdeaudhuij and Van Oost (2000).

[39] Farrington (1993); Zeigler and Rosenstein-Manner (1991).

[40] Clarke and Kiselica (1997).

[41] Banks, Kaplan and Groves (2001).

[42] Banks, Kaplan and Groves (2001), quoting therapist Veronica Thomas.

[43] Farrington (1993), citing Whitney and Smith (1991).

[44] Farrington (1993); also see Bernstein and Watson (1997), citing Olweus (1978); Perry, Kusel and Perry (1988).

[45] Bernstein and Watson (1997), citing Olweus (1978).

[46] Schwartz, Dodge and Cole (1993).

[47] Hodges and Perry (1997).

[48] Junger-Tas and Van Kesteren (1999).

[49] Smith and Brain (2000).

[50] Farrington (1993).

[51] Rigby and Slee (1999).

[52] Farrington (1993).

[53] Junger-Tas and Van Kesteren (1999).

[54] See Bernstein and Watson (1997) for a discussion of the research on chronic victims; also see Perry, Kusel and Perry (1988).

[55] Farrington (1993); Olweus (1993).

[56] See generally Bernstein and Watson (1997).

[57] Bernstein and Watson (1997); also see Salmivalli (1999).

[58] Olweus (1992).

[59] Harachi, Catalano and Hawkins (1999).

[60] Farrington (1993), citing Stephenson and Smith (1991); for similar conclusions, also see Roland (2000).

[61] Olweus and Limber (1999); Pitts and Smith (1996); also see the evaluation by The Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence. [Full Text ] [Full text ]

[62] Stevens, De Bourdeaudhuij and Van Oost (2000); Stevens found zero outcomes in secondary schools.

[63] Pitts and Smith (1996); but see Stevens, De Bourdeauhuij and Van Oost (2000).[Full text ]

[64] Limber et al. (1998).

[65] Personal correspondence from Sue Limber to the author, November 9, 2001.

[66] Personal correspondence from Sue Limber to the author, November 9, 2001.

[67] Personal correspondence from Sue Limber to the author, November 9, 2001.