Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Endnotes

[1] Tate (1990); Tyler (1985).

[2] Crewdson (1988); Tate (1990).

[3] Jewkes and Andrews (2005); Williams (2003).

[4] Wolak et al. (2003).

[5] Jenkins (2001).

[6] Alder (2001); Esposito (1998); Graham, (2000)[Full Text]; Grasz and Pfaltzgraff (1998)[Full Text]; Klain, Davies, and Hicks (2001)[Full Text]; Linz and Imrich (2001).

[7] Sexual Exploitation of Children Act (Pub.L. 95-225, 92 Stat. 7); New York v. Ferber, 458 U.S. 747 (1982); Child Protection Act (18 U.S.C. § 2251, 2252, et seq.); United States v. Dost, 636 F.Supp. 828, 832 (S.D. Cal. 1986), aff’d sub nom.; United States v. Wiegand, 812 F.2d 1239, 1244-45 (9th Cir. 1987), cert. denied, 484 U.S. 856 (1987); Child Protection and Obscenity [9] Enforcement Act (amending § 2251, 2252); Osborne v. Ohio, 495 U.S. 103 (1990); Child Pornography Protection Act (18 U.S.C. § 2252A, 2256(8)); Child Protector and Sexual Predator Punishment Act (42 U.S.C. § 13032); Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, 535 U.S. 234 (2002).

[8] United States v. Knox, 32 F.3d 733 (3d Cir. 1994), cert denied, 513 U.S. 1109 (1995).

[9] Jenkins (2001).

[10] Klain, Davies, and Hicks (2001)[Full Text].

[11] Taylor, Holland, and Quayle (2001)[Full Text].

[12] Lanning and Burgess (1989).

[13] Blundell et al. (2002); Calder (2004); Ferraro et al. (2004); Jenkins (2001); U.S. General Accounting Office (2003)[Full Text].

[14] Khan (2000)[Full Text].

[15] Forde and Patterson (1998)[Full Text]; Jenkins (2001); Lesce (1999)[Full Text].

[16] Burke et al. (2002).

[17] Forde and Patterson (1998)[Full Text]; Jenkins (2001); Lesce (1999)[Full Text].

[18] Wellard (2001)[Full Text].

[19] Carr (2004)[Full Text].

[20] Jenkins, (2001).

[21] Jenkins (2001).

[22] Simon (2000).

[23] Dobson (2003); Wellard (2001)[Full Text].

[24] Smallbone and Wortley (2000)[Full Text].

[25] Blundell et al. (2002); Schwartz and Southern (2000).

[26] Calder (2004).

[27] Blundell et al. (2002); Schneider (2000).

[28] Linz and Imrich (2001).

[29] Quayle and Taylor (2001).

[30] Cooper et al. (1999).

[31] Krone (2004)[Full Text].

[32] Lanning and Burgess (1989).

[33] Klain, Davies, and Hicks (2001)[Full Text].

[34] Silbert (1989).

[35] Marshall (2000).

[36] Marshall (1988); Proulx, Perreult, and Ouimet (1999).

[37] Linz and Imrich (2001); Marshall (2000).

[38] Kennedy-Souza (1998); Taylor and Quayle (2003).

[39] Goldstein (1999).

[40] O'Connell (2001).

[41] Aftab (2000).

[42] Finkelhor, Mitchell, and Wolak (2000)[Full Text]; Donnerstein (2002).

[43] Aloysius (2001).

[44] Calder (2004).

[45] Ferraro et al. (2004).

[46] Ferraro et al. (2004).

[47] Grant, David, and Grabosky (1997).

[48] Ferraro et al. (2004); Graham (2000)[Full Text].

[49] U.S. General Accounting Office (2003)[Full Text].

[50] Jewkes and Andrews (2005).

[51] Graham (2000)[Full Text]; Stanley (2001)[Full Text]; Thomas (1997).

[52] Jenkins (2001).

[53] Grant, David, and Grabosky (1997).

[54] Krone (2004)[Full Text].

[55] Khan (2000)[Full Text].

[56] Jenkins (2001).

[57] Burke et al. (2002); Forde and Patterson (1998)[Full Text]; Mostyn (2000); Thornburgh and Lin (2002).

[58] Jewkes and Andrews (2005).

[59] Jewkes and Andrews (2005).

[60] Jewkes and Andrews (2005).

[61] Taylor and Quayle (2003).

[62] Wellard (2001)[Full Text].

[63] Wolak et al. (2003).

[64] Canadian Resource Centre for Victims of Crime (2000)[Full Text].

[65] Stewart (1997).

[66] Thornburgh and Lin (2002); Lee, Hui, and Fong (2003).

[67] Wang et al. (1998).

[68] Klain, Davies, and Hicks (2001)[Full Text]; Canadian Resource Centre for Victims of Crime (2000)[Full Text].

[69] Stanley (2001)[Full Text].

[70] Ferraro et al. (2004); Kreston (2004).

[71] Canadian Resource Centre for Victims of Crime (2000)[Full Text].

[72] Carr (2004)[Full Text].

[73] Mostyn (2000).

[74] Graham (2000)[Full Text].

[75] Taylor and Quayle (2006) [Abstract Only ].

[76] Anonymous (2003); Sutton and Jones (2004)[Full Text].

[77] Adegoke (2003).

[78] Ferraro et al. (2004).

[79] Lee, Hui, and Fong (2003).

[80] Arnaldo (2000).

[81] Aftab (2001); Lee, Hui, and Fong (2003); Thornburgh and Lin (2002); Wang et al. (1998).

[82] U.S. Department of Justice (2004)[Full Text].

[83] Avarda, Colorado Police Department (1996)[Full Text]; Lesce (1999)[Full Text].

[84] Duff-Brown (2005)

[85] BBC News (13 February 2001); BBC News (11 November 2002); BBC News (18 December 2003).

[86] DeMarco (2005).

[87] Jenkins (2001).

[88] Lesce (1999)[Full Text].

[89] Simon (2000).

[90] Grant, David, and Grabosky (1997); Jenkins (2001).

[91] Arnaldo (2001).

[92] Calder (2004); Ferraro et al. (2004); Shelley, Cashman, and Vermaat (2004).

[93] Calder (2004); Ferraro et al. (2004); Shelley, Cashman, and Vermaat (2004).

[94] Blundell et al. (2002); Calder (2004); Ferraro et al. (2004); Jenkins (2001); Thornburgh and Lin (2002).

[95] U.S. General Accounting Office (2002)[Full Text]; Klain, Davies, and Hicks (2001)[Full Text].

[96] BBC News (11 November 2002); Jewkes and Andrews (2005); U.S. Postal Inspection Service (n.d.)[Full Text].

[97] BBC News (13 February 2001); Graham (2000)[Full Text].

[98] Federal Bureau of Investigation (March 18 2002)[Full Text].

[99] BBC News (18 December 2003).