Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Endnotes

[1] Skogan (1987); Beck and Willis (1995).

[2] Beck and Willis (1995).

[3] National Crime Prevention (1999); Lancashire Constabulary (1999)[Full Text]; Parker (1993).

[4] National Crime Prevention (1999).

[5] Meehan (1992).

[6] National Crime Prevention (1999).

[7] White (1998).[Full Text]

[8] White and Sutton (1995).

[9] Bland and Read (2000)[Full Text]; Lancashire Constabulary (1999)[Full Text]; Ball (1994).

[10] Lancashire Constabulary (1999)[Full Text].

[11] Poole (1991).

[12] New York City Police Department (1993); Lancashire Constabulary (1999)[Full Text]; Cleveland Police (1998)[Full Text].

[13] Lancashire Constabulary (1999)[Full Text].

[14] Phillips and Cochrane (1988)[Full Text]; Bland and Read (2000)[Full Text]; White (1998)[Full Text]; Poole (1991).

[15] Phillips and Cochrane (1988)[Full Text]; White (1998)[Full Text]; Ball (1994).

[16] Eck and Spelman (1987).

[17] Parker (1993).

[18] Meehan(1992).

[19] Poole (1991).

[20] Poole (1991).

[21] Poole (1991).

[22] Lancashire Constabulary (1999)[Full Text].

[23] Chambers (1991) [Portable Document FormatFull Text ].

[24] New York City Police Department (1993).

[25] Cooper and Kracher (1996)[Full Text].

[26] McKay (1997).[Full Text]

[27] New York City Police Department (1993).

[28] Brown (1997)[Full Text].

[29] Ditton and Short (1998) ; see also Ditton and Short (1999) [Portable Document FileFull Text ].

[30] Oc and Tiesdell (1997).

[31] Green Mazerolle, Kadleck and Roehl (1998).

[32] Bland and Read (2000)[Full Text]; Lancashire Police Constabulary (1999)[Full Text]; Cleveland Police (1998)[Full Text].

[33] Bland and Read (2000)[Full Text]; Lancashire Police Constabulary (1999)[Full Text].

[34] Meehan (1992).

[35] Phillips and Cochrane (1988)[Full Text]; see also Parker (1993).

[36] Bland and Read (2000)[Full Text]; Lancashire Police Constabulary (1999)[Full Text].

[37] Phillips and Cochrane (1988)[Full Text]; Bland and Read (2000)[Full Text]; Cleveland Police (1998)[Full Text]; Ball (1994).

[38] New York City Police Department (1993).

[39] Poole (1991).

[40] Eck and Spelman (1987).

[41] Hofstra and Shapland (1997); Southgate, Bucke and Byron (1995)[Full Text]; Lancashire Police Constabulary (1999)[Full Text]; Jacobson and Saville (1999)[Full Text].

[42] Hofstra and Shapland (1997); Southgate, Bucke and Byron (1995)[Full Text]; Jacobson and Saville (1999)[Full Text].

[43] Southgate, Bucke and Byron (1995)[Full Text].

[44] Hofstra and Shapland (1997).

[45] Bland and Read (2000)[Full Text].

[46] Poole (1991).

[47] Phillips and Cochrane (1988).[Full Text]

[48] Bland and Read (2000)[Full Text]; Lancashire Police Constabulary (1999)[Full Text]; Poole (1991); Books (1995)[Full Text].

[49] White (1998)[Full Text]; Bland and Read (2000)[Full Text].

[50] White (1998).[Full Text]

[51] White (1998).[Full Text]

[52] Books (1995) [Full Text].

[53] Eck and Spelman (1987).

[54] Meehan (1992).

[55] New York City Police Department (1993).