Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Endnotes

[1] Lacey et al. (2009).

[2] National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2010).

[3] Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2010).

[4] O'Malley and Johnston (2007).

[5] Lacey et al. (2009).

[6] O'Kane, Tutt, and Bauer (2002).

[7] Bernhoft et al. (2005).

[8] Beasley, Beirness, and Porath-Waller (2011).

[9] Poulsen (2010).

[10] Elliott, Woolacott, and Braithwaite (2009).

[11] Officer (2009). But see Beasley, Beirness, and Porath-Waller (2011) for a somewhat different age distribution among Canadian offenders and victims.

[12] O'Malley and Johnston (2007).

[13] Begg, Langley, and Stephenson (2003).

[14] Karjalainen et al. (2011).

[15] Fergusson, Horwood, and Boden (2008).

[16]Lenne et al. (2001).

[17] Li et al. (2011).

[18] Bingham, Shope, and Zhu (2008); Brookoff et al. (1994); Hausken, Skurtveit, and Christophersen (2004); Ramaekers (2003).

[19] Jones, Shinar, and Walsh (2003).

[20]National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2012b).

[21] Ibid.

[22] Normand, Lempert, and O'Brien (1994).

[23] Kelly, Darke, and Ross (2004).

[24] Abramson and Haines (2012).

[25] Couper and Logan (2004).

[26] Lenne et al. (2001).

[27] Aitken, Kerger, and Crofts (2000).

[28] Kelly, Darke, and Ross (2004).

[29] National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2009).

[30] Degenhardt et al. (2006).

[31] Cartwright and Asbridge (2011).

[32] Calafat et al. (2009).

[33] Cartwright and Asbridge (2011).

[34] White (2003).

[35] Kerrigan (2004).

[36] DuPont (2011).

[37] Grotenhermen et al. (2005).

[38] Lacey, Brainard, and Snitow (2010).

[39] Walsh Group (2002).

[40] Voas (2006).

[41] Loudenburg, Drube, and Leonardson (2010); Cissner (2009).

[42] Eibner et al. (2006).

[43] Caulkins and DuPont (2010).

[44]Compton (1986).

[45] Hersch, Crouch, and Cook (2000).

[46] Farrell, Kerrigan, and Logan (2007).

[47] National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (1996).

[48] Darke, Kelly, and Ross (2004).

[49] Ulmer, Shabanova, and Preusser (2001).

[50] Boorman and Owens (2009).

[51] Freeman et al. (2008).

[52] McKnight and Voas (2001).

[53] International Association of Chiefs of Police (n.d.).

[54] Talpins and Hayes (2004).

[55] Smith et al. (2002).

[56] National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2004).

[57] DeYoung (1997).

[58] Leaf and Preusser (2011).

[59] Sweedler and Stewart (n.d.).

[60] Whittle (2000).

[61] Shaffer (2011).

[62] Macdonald et al. (2008).

[63] Bonta, Wallace-Capretta, and Rooney (2000).

[64] Mothers Against Drunk Driving (2005).

[65] Office of National Drug Control Policy (2011).

[66] Lacey et al. (2009).

[67] Davey et al. (2008).

[68] Watling et al. (2010).

[69] Fergusson and Horwood (2001).

[70] Hanson (2012).

[71] National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2012a).

[72] Couper and Logan (2004).

[73] Jolin and Stipak (1992).

[74] Fulkerson (2003).

[75] Skopp et al. (1996).

[76] White and Gasperin (2006).

[77] Nichols and Ross (1990).