Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Endnotes

1 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2002) [Full text].

2 Cavaiola and Wuth (2002).

3 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Police Executive Research Forum, and the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (1999) [Full text].

4 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2003b) [Full text]; Ross (1992); Cavaiola and Wuth (2002).

5 Balmforth (1998) [Full text].

6 Beirness, Mayhew, and Simpson (1997); Caetano and Clark (2000); Liu et al. (1997); National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2003b) [Full text]; Cavaiola and Wuth (2002) .

7 Caetano and Clark (2000).

8 Beirness, Mayhew, and Simpson (1997); Liu et al. (1997); National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2003b); Cavaiola and Wuth (2002).

9 Ross, McCleary, and LaFree (1990); Wieczorek and Coyle (1998); Cavaiola and Wuth (2002) .

10 Beirness, Mayhew, and Simpson (1997).

11 Caetano and Clark (2000); Beirness, Mayhew, and Simpson (1997); Liu et al. (1997).

12 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Police Executive Research Forum, and the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (1999) [Full text].

13 Cavaiola and Wuth (2002) ; McKnight and Voas (2001); Voas et al. (1998).

14 Ross (1992); Goldstein and Susmilch (1982) [Full text].

15 Centers for Disease Control (2002) [Full text]; Eisenberg (2003); Evans, Nevile, and Graham (1991); Helander (2002) [Full text]; McCartt et al. (2001) ; Presseur, Sol, and Stewart (1999) [Full text]; Ross (1992); Saffer and Grossman (1987); Shults et al. (2001); Toomey, Rosenfeld, and Wagenaar (1996) [Full text]; Voas, Tippetts, and Fell (2003); Cavaiola and Wuth (2002).

16 Beirness, Mayhew, and Simpson (1997); Jones and Lacey (2000) [Full text]; McKnight and Voas (2001); Cavaiola and Wuth (2002).

17 Associated Press (2004a), citing a study by the Wisconsin Bureau of Transportation Safety; Beirness, Mayhew, and Simpson (1997).

18 Beirness, Mayhew, and Simpson (1997).

19 McKnight and Voas (2001).

20 Moskowitz and Fiorentino (2000) [Full text]; Ross (1992); Zador, Krawchuk and Voas (2000) [Full text].

21 Beirness, Mayhew, and Simpson (1997); McKnight and Voas (2001); Ross (1992).

22 Cavaiola and Wuth (2002); Zador, Krawchuk and Voas (2000) [Full text].

23 Marowitz (1996) [Full text].

24 McKnight and Voas (2001); Ross (1992).

25 McKnight and Voas (2001).

26 Snow and Wells-Parker (2001).

27 Ross (1992).

28 Associated Press (2004a), citing a study by the Wisconsin Bureau of Transportation Safety; Liu et al. (1997); McKnight and Voas (2001); Ross (1992); Ross, McCleary, and LaFree (1990). See also Zador, Krawchuk, and Moore (2000).

29 Balmforth (1998) [Full text].

30 Ross (1992).

31 Voas, Holder, and Gruenewald (1997); Voas, Tippetts, and Fell (2000); Dieringer Research Group, Inc. (2001) [Full text]; Deshapriya and Iwase (1996).

32 Lacey and Jones (2000) [Full text].

33 Apsler, Char, Harding, and Klein (1999); Dee (2001); Eisenberg (2003); Fell and Voas (2003)[Full text]; Helander (2002) [Full text]; Mann et al. (2001); Rogers (1995, 1997) [Full text],[Full text]; Shults et al. (2001); U.S. General Accounting Office (1999) [Full text]; Voas, Tippetts, and Fell (2000); Voas, Tippetts, and Taylor (2002); Deshapriya and Iwase (1996). But see Foss, Stewart, and Reinfurt (2001) and Imrie (2004) for contrary results. [Full text]

34 Helander (2002) [Full text].

35 McKnight and Voas (2001); Presseur, Sol, and Stewart (1999) [Full text]; Shults et al. (2001); Voas, Tippetts, and Fell (2003); Blackman et al. (2001); Wagenaar, OMalley, and LaFond (2001); Zwerling and Jones (1999); Blomberg (1992).

36 Homel (1988).

37 Wagenaar and Toomey (2002); Evans, Nevile, and Graham (1991); Helander (2002); Ross (1992); Shults et al. (2001); Voas, Tippetts, and Fell (2003).

38 Ross (1992).

39 Snow and Wells-Parker (2001); Stuster, Burns, and Fiorentino (2002) [Full text]; Ross (1992); Whetten-Goldstein et al. (2000).

40 Stewart and Sweedler (1997); Evans, Nevile, and Graham (1991); Helander (2002) [Full text].

41 Ross (1992).

42 Lbmann (2002).

43 Mastrofski and Ritti (1996).

44 Goldstein and Susmilch (1982) [Full text]; Jones, Lacey, and Wiliszowski (1998) [Full text]; Ross and Voas (1990). See also Grosvenor, Toomey, and Wagenaar (1999).

45 Lancashire Constabulary (1999) [Full text].

46 Goldstein and Susmilch (1982) [Full text] .

47 Elder et al. (2002); Evans, Nevile, and Graham (1991); Helander (2002) [Full text]; Lacey, Jones, and Smith (1999) [Full text]; McKnight and Voas (2001); Miller, Galbraith, and Lawrence (1998); Ross (1992); Shults et al. (2001); Stewart and Sweedler (1997).

48 Balmforth (1998) [Full text]; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2003b) [Full text].

49 See Fell et al. (2003) for a discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of sobriety checkpoints.

50 Ross (1992).

51 McKnight and Voas (2001); Elder et al. (2002).

52 See, for example, Bowman and Stemler (2005). [Full text]

53 See also Greene (2003) [Full text].

54 McKnight and Voas (2001).

55 Stewart and Sweedler (1997); Homel (1998); Wilson and Mann (1990).

56 Helander (2002) [Full text]; McKnight and Voas (2001); Rogers (1995) [Full text]; Ross (1992); Stewart and Sweedler (1997); Ulmer, Shabanova, and Presseur (2001) [Full text]; Voas and DeYoung (2002); Voas, Tippetts, and Fell (2000); Whetten-Goldstein et al. (2000); National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (1999) [Full text].

57 McArthur and Kraus (1999); McKnight and Voas (2001).

58 Marques, Voas, and Hodgins (1998); McKnight and Voas (2001); National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2003a); Peck and Voas (2002); Tippetts and Voas (1998); McCartt, Geary, and Nissen (2004).

59 Scopatz et al. (2003) [Full text]; McCartt, Geary, and Nissen (2004).

60 McCartt et al. (2001); Presseur, Sol, and Stewart (1999) [Full text]; Ross (1992); Ulmer et al. (2000).

61 DeYoung (1998); Helander (2002) [Full text]; Marques, Voas, and Hodgins (1998); McKnight and Voas (2001); Safir, Grasso, and Messner (2000) [Full text]; Voas and DeYoung (2002): Voas, Tippetts, and Taylor (1997); National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (1999) [Full text].

62 DeYoung (2000).

63 Safir, Grasso, and Messner (2000) [Full text].

64 Peck and Voas (2002).

65 Peck and Voas (2002).

66 Marques, Voas, and Hodgins (1998); McKnight and Voas (2001).

67 Ross, Simon, and Cleary (1996).

68 Associated Press (2004b); Marques, Voas, and Hodgins (1998); Voas, Tippetts, and Lange (1997).

69 Marowitz (1996) [Full text].

70 Marques, Tippetts, and Voas (2001, 2003) .

71 Beck, Rauch, Baker, and Williams (1999); Helander (2002) [Full text]; Marques, Voas, and Hodgins (1998); McKnight and Voas (2001); Tippetts and Voas (1998); Voas et al. (1999, 2002) ; Weinrath (1997).

72 Beck, Rauch, Baker, and Williams (1999); Beirness (2001) [Full text]; Coben and Larkin (1998); Fulkerson (2003), finding positive effect for younger and repeat drunk drivers, but not for first-time offenders over the age of 30; Tippetts and Voas (1998).

73 Marques, Voas, and Hodgins (1998) ; Tippetts and Voas (1998); Voas et al. (2002).

74 Cavaiola and Wuth (2002); Breckenridge, Winfree, Maupin, and Clason (2000); Helander (2002) [Full text]; McKnight and Voas (2001); Taxman and Piquero (1998) ; Wells-Parker et al. (1995); DeYoung (1997); Pratt, Holsinger, and Latessa (2000).

75 McKnight and Voas (2001).

76 Helander (2002) [Full text].

77 See Helander (2002) for evidence of effectiveness; see McKnight and Voas (2001) for evidence of ineffectiveness [Full text].

78 Goldstein and Susmilch (1982) [Full text].

79 Jones and Lacey (1999) [Full text].

80 Wagenaar, Murray, and Toomey (2000); Wilson and Mann (1990).

81 Adrian, Ferguson, and Her (2001); Evans, Nevile, and Graham (1991); McKnight and Voas (2001); Saffer and Grossman (1987).

82 Whetten-Goldstein et al. (2000); Sloan et al. (2000).

83 McKnight and Voas (2001).

84 Sloan et al. (2000).

85 McKnight and Voas (2001).

86 Holder and Wagenaar (1994); Shults et al. (2001).

87 McKnight and Voas (2001).

88 Simons-Morton and Cummings (1997).

89 McKnight and Voas (2001). But see Sloan et al. (2000), concluding that enforcement of over-serving and serving minors laws does not significantly deter these practices.

90 Peel Regional Police (1996) [pdf iconFull text].

91 Sloan et al. (2000).

92 Williams (1994); Yanovitsky (2002); Blomberg (1992).

93 DeJong and Atkin (1995); Helander (2002) [Full text]; Dieringer Research Group, Inc. (2001).

94 DeJong and Atkin (1995); Glendon and Cernecca (2003); Elder et al. (2005); Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (1999) [Full text].

95 DeJong and Atkin (1995); McKnight and Voas (2001); Yanovitsky (2002).

96 McKnight and Voas (2001).

97 Elder et al. (2005).

98 DeJong and Atkin (1995).

99 Caudill, Harding, and Moore (2000, 2001); Simons-Morton and Cummings (1997).

100 Lacey, Jones, and Anderson (2000) [Full text]; Wisconsin Department of Transportation (2005); Ross (1992).

101 DeJong and Winsten (1999);Balmforth (1998) [Full text]; Roeper and Voas (1999).

102 Timmerman et al. (2003).

103 Ditter et al. (2005).

104 See Gruenewald, Johnson, and Treno (2002) for a discussion of some of the issues relating to the density of drinking outlets and drunk driving.

105 Evans, Nevile, and Graham (1991); Fradella (2000); Ross (1992); Ross and Voas (1990); Sen (2001); Stewart and Sweedler (1997); Taxman and Piquero (1998) .

106 Kinkade and Leone (1992); Ross (1992).

107 Helander (2002) [Full text]; McKnight and Voas (2001); Dieringer Research Group, Inc. (2001) [Full text].

108 Ross, McCleary, and LaFree (1990); Ross and Voas (1990).

109 McKnight and Voas (2001).

110 Bishop (1987).

111 Polacsek et al. (2001); Rojek, Coverdill, and Fors (2003); Wheeler et al. (2004).

112 Rojek, Coverdill, and Fors (2003).

113 Lapham et al. (2004); Lewis, Lapham, and Skipper (1998); Ross (1992).

114 Ross (1992).