Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Endnotes

[1] Krouse (2010: 1); see also International Association of Chiefs of Police (2001).

[2] Federal Bureau of Investigation (2012: 1).

[3] FBI (2012); Harlow (2005).

[4] FBI (2012); Haas, Nolan, Turley, and Stump (2011); Phillips (2009).

[5] FBI (2012); Phillips (2009).

[6] International Association of Chiefs of Police (2001); Kercher, Nolasco, and Wu (2008).

[7] Balboni and McDevitt (2001); Krouse (2010).

[8] Langton and Planty (2011).

[9] Lane, Shaw, and Kim (2009).

[10] Lane, Shaw, and Kim (2009).

[11] Langton and Planty (2011: 2).

[12] Freilich, Chermam, Belli, Gruenewald, and Parkin (Forthcoming).

[13] Freilich, Chermam, Belli, Gruenewald, and Parkin (Forthcoming); Gruenewald (2011).

[14] Gruenewald (2011).

[15] Green, Strolovitch, Wong, and Bailey (2001).

[16] Messner, McHugh, and Felson (2004).

[17] Langton and Planty (2011).

[18] McDevitt, Balboni, Garcia, and Gu (2001).

[19] Balboni and McDevitt (2001); California Attorney General's Civil Rights Commission on Hate Crimes (2001); Cogan (2002); Craig and Waldo (1996); Green, Strolovitch, and Wong (1998); International Association of Chiefs of Police (2001); Kercher, Nolasco, and Wu (2008); Leadership Conference on Civil Rights Education (2009).

[20] Balboni and McDevitt (2001); Haas, Nolan, Turley, and Stump (2011); Langton and Planty (2011).

[21] Sampson and Groves (1989).

[22] Brimicombe, Ralphs, Sampson, and Tsui (2001); Bowling (1999); Byers and Crider (2002); Glaser, Dixit, and Green (2002); Green, Strolovitch, and Wong (1998).

[23] Grattet (2009).

[24] Green, Glaser, and Rich (1998).

[25] Lyons (2007).

[26] Green, Strolovitch, Wong, and Bailey (2001).

[27] Iganski (2007).

[28] Githens-Mazer and Lambert (2010); Perry (2009).

[29] Green and Rich (1998).

[30] Berlet (2001); Leadership Conference on Civil Rights Education (2009).

[31] Blazak (2001); Ezekiel (1995); Hamm (1993).

[32] Chermak, Freilich, and Suttmoeller (2013).

[33] Levin and McDevitt (1993; 2002); See also Byers and Crider (2002); Franklin (2002); Gruenewald (2011); Hamm (1993); Heitmeyer (2003); Kielinger and Paterson (2007); Phillips (2009).

[34] Berlet (2001); Byers and Crider (2002).

[35] Dunbar, Quinones, and Crevecoeur (2005).

[36] Glaser, Dixit, and Green (2002); Green, Abelson, and Garnett (1999).

[37] Dunbar, Quinones, and Crevecoeur (2005).

[38] Langton and Planty (2011).

[39] Byers and Crider (2002).

[40] Balboni and McDevitt (2001).

[41] California Attorney General's Civil Rights Commission on Hate Crimes (2001); Craig and Waldo (1996); Dunbar, Quinones, and Crevecoeur (2005); Franklin (2002); Garofalo and Martin (1993); Gorton (2011); International Association of Chiefs of Police (2001); Langton and Planty (2011).

[42] American Prosecutors Research Institute (2003); Boyd, Berk, and Hammer (1996); Haider-Markel (2001); Jenness and Grattet (2005); International Association of Chiefs of Police (2001); King (2007).

[43] Berlet (2001); Byers and Crider (2002); Johnson (2009).

[44] Bell (2009); Boyd, Berk and Hammer (1996); Bune (2004); Cronin, McDevitt, Farrell, and Nolan III (2007); Gist (1997); Hall (2005); Levin and Amerster (2007).

[45] Walker and Katz (1995).

[46] American Prosecutors Research Institute (2003); Bowling (1999); Gist (1997); International Association of Chiefs of Police (2001); Lancashire Constabulary (2005); Kercher, Nolasco, and Wu (2008).

[47] Gist (1997).

[48] Levin and Amster (2007).

[49] American Prosecutors Research Institute (2003); Balboni and McDevitt (2001); Bouman (2003); Boyd, Berk and Hammer (1996); Bune (2004); Cronin, McDevitt, Farrell, and Nolan III (2007); Gist (1997); Gorton (2011); Haider-Markel (2001); International Association of Chiefs of Police (2001); Kercher, Nolasco, and Wu (2008).

[50] Brimicombe, Ralphs, Sampson, and Tsui (2001); Bowling (1994); Byers and Crider (2002); Glaser, Dixit and Green (2002); Grattet (2009); Green, Strolovitch, and Wong (1998); International Association of Chiefs of Police (2001).

[51] American Prosecutors Research Institute (2003); Boyd, Berk, and Hammer (1996); Bune (2004); International Association of Chiefs of Police (2001); Kielinger and Paterson (2007).

[52] FBI (2012:1).

[53] Duffy and Brantley (1997); Freilich and Chermak (2009); Newman and Clarke (2008).

[54] Hounslow Community Safety Partnership (2007).

[55] Lancashire Constabulary (2005).

[56] Chakraborti (2009); Gorton (2011); International Association of Chiefs of Police
(2001).

[57] Lancashire Constabulary (2002).

[58] American Prosecutors Research Institute (2003); Balboni and McDevitt (2001); Bune, (2004); Byers and Crider (2002); California Attorney General's Civil Rights Commission on Hate Crimes (2001); Gorton (2011); Grattet (2009); Grattet and Jenness (2008); Gist (1997); International Association of Chiefs of Police (2001); Newman and Clarke (2008).

[59] Berlet (2001); Blazak (2001); Bune (2004); California Attorney General's Civil Rights Commission on Hate Crimes (2001); Craig and Waldo (1996); International Association of Chiefs of Police (2001); Newman and Clarke (2008).