Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Endnotes

[1] Cosgrove and Grant (1997).

[2] Burke (2000).

[3] Kelling and Coles (1996, 1994); Kozlowski (1999); Leoussis (1995) [Full Text]; Harcourt (1998) [Full Text];
Skogan (1990).

[4] Kelling and Coles (1996, 1994); Ellickson (1996); Vancouver Police Department (1999) [Full Text];
Fontana Police Department (1998).[Full Text]

[5] Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993); Fontana Police Department (1998) [Full Text]; Manning (2000) [Full Text].

[6] Burke (1998); Goldstein (1993); Teir (1993) [Full Text]; Lankenau (1999); St. Petersburg Police
Department (1997) [Full Text]; Manning (2000) [Full Text].

[7] Goldstein (1993); Vancouver Police Department (1999).[Full Text]

[8] See Ammann (2000) [Full Text]; Barta (1999) [Abstract only]; Burns (1992) [Full Text]; Hershkoff position in Hershkoff and Conner (1993) [Full Text]; Lankenau (1999); Munzer (1997); Harcourt (1998) [Full Text].

[9] Munzer (1997).

[10] See Kelling and Coles (1996); Ellickson (1996); Burke (2000); Teir (1998, 1993) [Full Text][Full Text]; Conner
position in Hershkoff and Conner (1993) [Full Text]; Criminal Justice Legal Foundation (1994).

[11] Wilson (1991).

[12] Ellickson (1996).

[13] Kelling and Coles (1996); Ellickson (1996).

[14] Kelling and Coles (1996).

[15] Burke (2000); Lankenau (1999).

[16] Kelling and Coles (1996, 1994); Kelling (1999) [Full Text].

[17] Goldstein (1993).

[18] Ellickson (1996); Goldstein (1993); University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of
Police and Security (1997) [Full Text]; St. Petersburg Police Department (1997) [Full Text]; Alexandria Police Department (1995) [Full Text]; Evanston Police Department (1995) [Full Text]; Sampson and Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce, Fla., case study) [Full Text]; Higdon and Huber (1987) (Dundalk project); Manning (2000) [Full Text].

[19] Burke (1998); Stark (1992); Lankenau (1999); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993); Evanston
Police Department (1995, n.d.) [Full Text]; Goldstein (1993); Santa Ana Police Department (1993);[Full Text]
Chicago Tribune (1994); Manning (2000) [Full Text].

[20] Burke (1998).

[21] Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993); Evanston Police
Department (1995) [Full Text]; Duneier (1999).

[22] Goldstein (1993); Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Ellickson (1996); Burke (1998); Luckenbach
and Acosta (1993).

[23] Goldstein (1993); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993); New York City Police Department
(1994); St. Petersburg Police Department (1997) [Full Text]; Chicago Tribune (1994); Evanston Police
Department (n.d.); Higdon and Huber (1987) (Dundalk project); Manning (2000) [Full Text].

[24] Goldstein (1993); St. Petersburg Police Department (1997) [Full Text]; University of Wisconsin-
Madison Department of Police and Security (1997).[Full Text]

[25] Ellickson (1996); Stark (1992); Goldstein (1993).

[26] Ellickson (1996); Teir (1998) [Full Text]; Goldstein (1993); Fontana Police Department (1998) [Full Text];
Chicago Tribune (1994); Manning (2000) [Full Text].

[27] Stark (1992).

[28] Burke (1998); Lankenau (1999).

[29] Stark (1992).

[30] Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993).

[31] Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993).

[32] Goldstein (1993); Ellickson (1996).

[33] Goldstein (1993); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993).

[34] Ellickson (1996); Kelling and Coles (1996); Butterfield (1988).

[35] Burns (1992).[Full Text]

[36] Stark (1992).

[37] Wilson (1991).

[38] Stark (1992).

[39] Stark (1992); St. Petersburg Police Department (1997).[Full Text]

[40] Ellickson (1996); Burke (1998); Stark (1992); Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993); Duneier
(1999).

[41] Ellickson (1996); Fontana Police Department (1998) [Full Text]; University of Wisconsin-Madison
Department of Police and Security (1997) [Full Text]; Santa Ana Police Department (1993).[Full Text]

[42] Leoussis (1995) [Full Text].

[43] Stark (1992); Seattle Police Department (2000); Sampson and Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce
case study). [Full Text]

[44] Goldstein (1993).

[45] University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Police and Security (1997).[Full Text]

[46] Goldstein (1993).

[47] Goldstein (1993); Burke (1998); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993); Evanston Police
Department (n.d.); Ellickson (1996); Stark (1992); Duneier (1999).

[48] Ellickson (1996); Mabry (1994) [Full Text]; Goldstein (1993); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993);
Manning (2000) [Full Text]; Duneier (1999).

[49] Burns (1992).[Full Text]

[50] Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993).

[51] Burke (1998); Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993).

[52] Stark (1992); Goldstein (1993).

[53] Burke (1998); Ellickson (1996).

[54] Burke (1998).

[55] Ellickson (1996).

[56] Stark (1992).

[57] Kelling and Coles (1996, 1994); Teir (1993).[Full Text]

[58] Ellickson (1996).

[59] Goldstein (1993); Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Ellickson (1996); Evanston Police Department (1995).[Full Text]

[60] Ellickson (1996); Goldstein (1993).

[61] Teir (1993) [Full Text]; Center for the Community Interest (1996) [Full Text]; Criminal Justice Legal Foundation (1994).

[62] Kelling and Coles (1996); Barta (1999) [Abstract only]; Ellickson (1996); Delmonico (1996) [Full Text]; Kozlowski (1999); Leoussis (1995) [Full Text]; Mabry (1994) [Full Text]; Mitchell (1994); Nichols (1997) [Full Text]; Teir (1998, 1993) [Full Text][Full Text]; Walston (1999); Hershkoff and Conner (1993) [Full Text]; Munzer (1997).

[63] Leoussis (1995).[Full Text]

[64] Kelling and Coles (1996); Ellickson (1996).

[65] Goldstein (1993).

[66] Santa Ana Police Department (1993) [Full Text]; Little (1992).

[67] Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Goldstein (1993).

[68] New York City Police Department (1994); Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Ellickson (1996); Burke (1998); Leoussis (1995) [Full Text]; Teir (1993) [Full Text]; Goldstein (1993).

[69] Ammann (2000).[Full Text]

[70] St. Petersburg Police Department (1997) [Full Text]; Vancouver Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; Higdon and Huber (1987) (Dundalk project); Savannah Police Department (1995).[Full Text]

[71] Bland and Read (2000).[Full Text]

[72] Kelling and Coles (1996); Kelling (1999) [Full Text].

[73] Savannah Police Department (1995).[Full Text]

[74] Kelling and Coles (1996) (discussing Seattle's response to panhandling); Santa Ana Police Department (1993) [Full Text]; Felson et al. (1996).

[75] Ellickson (1996); Lankenau (1999); Goldstein (1993).

[76] Goldstein (1993).

[77] Burke (2000); Delmonico (1996) [Full Text].

[78] Kelling and Coles (1996).

[79] Kelling and Coles (1996); Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Ellickson (1996); Mabry (1994) [Full Text]; Teir (1998) [Full Text]; Kozlowski (1999) (citing a Fort Lauderdale law).

[80] Ellickson (1996); see Munzer (1997) for a critique of Ellickson's zoning proposal.

[81] Kelling and Coles (1996) (citing a Seattle law).

[82] Vancouver Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; New York City Police Department (1994).

[83] University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Police and Security (1997).[Full Text]

[84] Teir (1993).[Full Text]

[85] Ellickson (1996).

[86] Ammann (2000) [Full Text]; Harcourt (1998) [Full Text].

[87] Heimberger (1992).[Full Text]

[88] Cosgrove and Grant (1997); Ellickson (1996); Mabry (1994) [Full Text]; Ybarra (1996); Santa Ana Police Department (1993).[Full Text]

[89] Ellickson (1996).

[90] Manning (2000) [Full Text].

[91] Ellickson (1996); Luckenbach and Acosta (1993); Santa Ana Police Department (1993) [Full Text]; Vancouver Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; Evanston Police Department (1995) [Full Text]; Higdon and Huber (1987); Manning (2000) [Full Text]; Cosgrove and Grant (1997).

[92] Barta (1999) [Abstract only]; Harcourt (1998) [Full Text].

[93] Ellickson (1996).

[94] University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Police and Security (1997) [Full Text]; Sampson and Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce case study). [Full Text]

[95] Evanston Police Department (1995).[Full Text]

[96] Kelling and Coles (1996).

[97] Nkrumah (1998); Egan (1993).

[98] Evanston Police Department (1995).[Full Text]

[99] Goldstein (1993).

[100] Egan (1993).

[101] Burns (1992) [Full Text]; Green Bay Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; Vancouver Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; Sampson and Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce case study) [Full Text]; Felson et al. (1996) [Full Text]; Duneier (1999).

[102] Santa Ana Police Department (1993).[Full Text]

[103] Sampson and Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce and San Diego case studies) [Full Text]; Santa Ana Police Department (1993) [Full Text]; Kelling and Coles (1996) (discussion of San Francisco's Operation Matrix).

[104] Seattle Police Department (2000); Alexandria Police Department (1995) [Full Text]; Green Bay Police Department (1999) [Full Text]; Higdon and Huber (1987) (Dundalk project).

[105] Santa Ana Police Department (1993).[Full Text]

[106] Vancouver Police Department (1999).

[107] Manning (2000) [Full Text].

[108] Felson et al. (1996).[Full Text]

[109] Stark (1992).

[110] Bittner (1967); Kelling and Coles (1994); Burke (1998); Goldstein (1993); Little (1992); Sampson and Scott (2000) (Fort Pierce case study) [Full Text]; Fontana Police Department (1998) [Full Text]; Higdon and Huber (1987) (Dundalk project); Manning (2000) [Full Text]; Felson et al. (1996). [Full Text]

[111] Fontana Police Department (1998).[Full Text]

[112] Felson et al. (1996). [Full Text]

[113] Goldstein (1993).

[114] Manning (2000) [Full Text].

[115] University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Police and Security (1997) [Full Text]; Manning (2000) [Full Text].

[116] Manning (2000) [Full Text]; Goldstein (1993); Stark (1992); Kelling and Coles (1994); Evanston Police Department (1995) [Full Text].

[117] Leoussis (1995) [Full Text]; Teir (1998, 1993) [Full Text] [Full Text].