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Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance: National College Health Risk Behavior Survey -- United States, 1995

Division of Adolescent and School Health National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Abstract Problem/Condition: Colleges and universities are important settings for delivering health promotion education and services to many young adults. However, before this national college-based survey was conducted in 1995, the prevalences of health-risk behaviors among college students nationwide had not been well characterized. Reporting Period: January through June 1995. Description of the System: The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults: behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries, tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual behaviors, unhealthy dietary behaviors, and physical inactivity. The YRBSS includes a) national, state, and local school-based surveys of high school students conducted biennially since 1991, b) a household-based survey conducted in 1992 among a national sample of youth aged 12-21 years, whether enrolled in school, and c) the national college-based survey conducted in 1995. This report summarizes results from the national college-based survey -- the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) -- and describes priority health-risk behaviors among college students nationwide and health promotion programs on college campuses. Results and Interpretation: Data from the 1995 survey indicated that many college students throughout the United States engage in behaviors that place them at risk for serious health problems. Almost one third (29.0%) of college students were current cigarette smokers. One third (34.5%) of college students reported episodic heavy drinking during the 30 days preceding the survey, 27.4% reported drinking alcohol and driving during the 30 days preceding the survey, and 30.5% of students who had gone boating or swimming during the 12 months preceding the survey had drunk alcohol while boating or swimming. One in five (20.4%) female college students had been forced to have sexual intercourse during her lifetime. Only 29.6% of students who had had sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey had used a condom at last sexual intercourse, and 34.5% had used birth control pills. Approximately one in five (20.5 %) college students was overweight. Survey results indicated that three fourths (73.7 %) of students had failed to eat five or more servings of fruits and vegetables on the day preceding the survey, 21.8% had eaten three or more high-fat foods on the day preceding the survey, and few students had engaged in vigorous (37.6%) or moderate (19.5%) physical activity at recommended levels. Actions Taken: The NCHRBS data will be used to measure progress toward achieving 28 national health objectives related to the health-risk behaviors of college students and two national health objectives related to the availability and characteristics of health promotion programs for college students. These data also will be used nationwide by college health and education officials to improve health policies and programs designed to reduce risks associated with the leading causes of mortality and morbidity among college students.

INTRODUCTION

More than 12 million students are currently enrolled in the nation's 3,600 colleges and universities (1). Of these students, approximately 7.1 million are aged 18-24 years, comprising 57% of the college population. Of all persons aged 18-24 years in the United States, one fourth are currently either full- or part-time college students (1,2); of all persons aged 20-24 years, more than half have attended college (3). Thus, colleges and universities are important settings for reducing important health-risk behaviors (e.g., drinking and driving) among many young adults. However, before the national college-based survey was conducted in 1995, the prevalences of health-risk behaviors among college students nationwide had not been well characterized.

To monitor the priority health-risk behaviors among young persons, in 1990, CDC developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) (4). The YRBSS includes a) national, state, and local school-based surveys of high school students conducted biennially since 1991, b) a household-based survey conducted in 1992 among a national sample of youth aged 12-21 years, whether enrolled in school, and c) the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) conducted in 1995. The purpose of the NCHRBS is to monitor a broad range of priority health-risk behaviors among college students: behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injury; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. The NCHRBS is the first national survey to measure health-risk behaviors among college students across these six important areas of behaviors. The NCHRBS also helps measure progress toward achieving 28 national health objectives (5) related to health behaviors of college students and two national health objectives related to the availability and characteristics of health promotion programs on college campuses. This report summarizes results from the NCHRBS and describes priority health-risk behaviors among college students nationwide and the health promotion programs on college campuses.

METHODS Sampling

The 1995 NCHRBS used a two-stage cluster sample design to produce a nationally representative sample of undergraduate college students aged greater than or equal to 18 years. The first-stage sampling frame contained 2,919 primary sampling units (PSUs), consisting of 2- and 4-year colleges and universities. From the 2,919 colleges and universities, * 74 4-year institutions and 74 2-year institutions were selected from 16 strata formed on the basis of the relative percentage of black ** and Hispanic students in the institutions. *** The colleges and universities were selected with probability proportional to undergraduate enrollment size. Overall, 136 (92%) of the 148 selected institutions participated in the survey.

The second sampling stage consisted of a simple random sample drawn from a list of the full- and part-time undergraduate students aged greater than or equal to 18 years enrolled in the 136 participating colleges and universities. Differential sampling rates were used to ensure sufficient numbers of black and Hispanic students in the sample. After allowing for assumed student nonresponse and ineligibility rates, 56 students were targeted in each 4-year institution and 72 students were targeted in each 2-year institution. A total of 8,810 students were selected and 7,442 were determined to be eligible for the study. Of those eligible, 4,838 (65%) completed the questionnaire. The overall survey response rate was 60%. Data from 4,609 undergraduate college students aged greater than or equal to 18 years were used in this report.

Data were edited for inconsistency, and a weighting factor was applied to each student record to adjust for the school sampling weight, the school nonresponse adjustment factor, the student sampling weight, and the student nonresponse adjustment factor. Information on the total number of students by race/ethnicity, sex, and institution type (2-year versus 4-year) was used to poststratify the sample. For each adjustment class (i.e., a particular race/ethnicity, sex, and institution type), the poststratification adjustment factor was the ratio of the known national value to the sample estimate of that value. The final overall weights were scaled so that the weighted count of students was equal to the number of cases for that year. The scaling factor was the ratio of the number of respondent cases to the sum of the weights for those students. SUDAAN was used to compute 95% confidence intervals (6). The NCHRBS data are representative of undergraduate college students aged greater than or equal to 18 years in 2- and 4-year colleges and universities in the United States.

After weighting, female students represented 55.5% of the sample; white **** students represented 72.8% of the sample, black students 10.3%, Hispanic students 7.1%, and 9.9% were other. Students aged 18-24 years represented 63.6% of the sample; students in 4-year institutions represented 54.4% of the sample (Table_1). Students in 2-year institutions were more likely to be aged greater than or equal to 25 years (63.8%), whereas students in 4-year institutions were more likely to be aged 18-24 years (65.4%). Two thirds (68.2%) of the students attended college full-time. More than two thirds (69.4%) of the students had never been married and 22.0% were currently married. Approximately one fourth (22.9%) of the students worked greater than or equal to 40 hours per week, 49.7% worked 1-39 hours per week, and 27.3% were not employed. One of 10 (9.8%) students was a member of a sorority or fraternity. Overall, the sample closely reflects the demographic distribution of college students in the United States (1).

The body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported values of height and weight (BMI=weight{kg}/height{m}2). Overweight is defined as a BMI greater than or equal to 27.8 for men and greater than or equal to 27.3 for women. This classification is based on the 85th percentile value from BMI among persons aged 20-29 years in the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (7).

Data Collection

The NCHRBS questionnaire was developed by CDC, in collaboration with representatives from colleges and universities, relevant national organizations, and other federal agencies. The questionnaire, designed for self-administration, consisted of a booklet that could be scanned by a computer; the booklet contained 96 multiple-choice questions and was sent by mail to students in the sample. English and Spanish versions were available. Responses to the questionnaire were both voluntary and confidential. Data collection was initiated in January 1995 and completed by June 1995.

RESULTS Behaviors that Contribute to Unintentional Injuries Safety-Belt Use

Nationwide, 10.2% of college students rarely or never used safety belts when riding in a car driven by someone else (Table_2). Male students (13.0%) were significantly more likely than female students (7.8%) to rarely or never use safety belts when riding in a car driven by someone else, and white students (10.7%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic students (6.9%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex demonstrated a significant race/ethnicity difference between white (14.9%) and Hispanic (8.0%) male students. In addition, black female students (13.2%) were significantly more likely than white (7.4%) and Hispanic (6.0%) female students to rarely or never use safety belts when riding in a car driven by someone else.

Nationwide, 96.3% of college students had driven a car. Of those students who had driven a car, 9.2% rarely or never used safety belts when driving a car (Table_2). Male students (12.3%) were significantly more likely than female students (6.6%) to rarely or never use safety belts when driving a car as were white students (10.1%) compared with Hispanic students (5.1%). Examination of subgroups by sex revealed that the race/ethnicity difference was significant only for white (14.2%) and Hispanic (5.3%) male students.

Motorcycle-Helmet Use

During the 12 months preceding the survey, 17.6% of college students nationwide had ridden a motorcycle. Overall, 34.0% of college students who had ridden a motorcycle during the 12 months preceding the survey rarely or never used a motorcycle helmet (Table_2).

Bicycle-Helmet Use

Nationwide, 57.1% of college students had ridden a bicycle during the 12 months preceding the survey. Overall, 87.1% of college students who had ridden a bicycle during the 12 months preceding the survey rarely or never used bicycle helmets (Table_2). Students aged 18-24 years (89.2%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (82.6%) to rarely or never use a bicycle helmet.

Riding with a Driver Who Had Been Drinking Alcohol

During the 30 days preceding the survey, more than one third (35.1%) of college students nationwide had ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol (Table_3). Students aged 18-24 years (38.9%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (28.5%) to have ridden with a driver who had been drinking. White students (38.3%) were significantly more likely than black students (27.5%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex revealed a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (36.6%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (27.8%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (41.4%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (29.7%). Examination of subgroups by sex also revealed a significant race/ethnicity difference between white (36.0%) and black (24.8%) female students. In addition, white male students (41.2%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic male students (29.6%) to report this behavior. Male students attending 4-year institutions (43.8%) were significantly more likely than male students attending 2-year institutions (29.6%) to ride with a driver who had been drinking.

Driving After Drinking Alcohol

During the 30 days preceding the survey, 27.4% of college students nationwide had driven a vehicle after drinking alcohol (Table_3). Male students (33.2%) were significantly more likely than female students (22.8%) to drive after drinking. White (31.2%) and Hispanic (24.8%) students were significantly more likely than black students (14.7%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex revealed a significant race/ethnicity difference between white (26.2%) and black (11.5%) female students and between white (37.4%) and black (19.7%) male students.

Drinking Alcohol When Boating or Swimming

Nationwide, 76.8% of college students had gone boating or swimming during the 12 months preceding the survey. Overall, 30.5% of these students had drunk alcohol when boating or swimming (Table_3). Male students (35.2%) were significantly more likely than female students (26.4%) to report this behavior. Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (34.4%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (28.3%) to report this behavior. White students (33.4%) were significantly more likely than black (11.1%) and Hispanic (22.2%) students to do so. Hispanic students (22.2%) were significantly more likely than black students (11.1%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex revealed that the race/ethnicity difference varied by sex. Among females, white (29.1%) and Hispanic (21.7%) students were significantly more likely than black students (7.6%) to report this behavior. Among males, white students (38.8%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic (23.0%) students to have done so.

Behaviors that Contribute to Intentional Injuries Carrying a Weapon

Nationwide, 8.0% of college students had carried a weapon (e.g., a gun, knife, or club) during the 30 days preceding the survey for nonwork-related reasons (Table_4). Male students (13.8%) were significantly more likely than female students (3.4%) to have carried a weapon. Examination of subgroups by sex revealed a significant race/ethnicity difference between black (6.9%) and white (3.0%) female students.

Nationwide, 2.9% of college students had carried a gun during the 30 days preceding the survey for nonwork-related reasons (Table_4). Male students (5.1%) were significantly more likely than female students (1.2%) to have carried a gun.

Forced Sexual Intercourse

Nationwide, 13.1% of college students reported that they had been forced to have sexual intercourse against their will during their lifetime (Table_5). Female students (20.4%) were significantly more likely than male students (3.9%) to report they had ever been forced to have sexual intercourse. Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (17.5%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (10.6%) to report this. Students attending 2-year institutions (15.6%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (11.1%) to report they had ever been forced to have sexual intercourse. Examination of subgroups by sex revealed a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (25.5%) and those aged 18-24 years (17.0%).

Nationwide, 2.6% of college students reported that the first time they had been forced to have sexual intercourse occurred at age less than 13 years (Table_5). Female students (3.3%) were significantly more likely than male students (1.6%) to report first being forced to have sexual intercourse at age less than 13 years; students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (3.6%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (2.0%) to report this; Hispanic students (4.9%) were significantly more likely than white students (1.9%) to do so. Students attending 2-year institutions (3.7%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (1.7%) to report first being forced to have sexual intercourse at age less than 13 years. Examination of subgroups by sex revealed a significant race/ethnicity difference between Hispanic (3.6%) and black (0.2%) male students. Examination of subgroups by sex also revealed a significant difference between female students attending 2-year institutions (4.5%) and those attending 4-year institutions (2.2%).

Nationwide, 6.8% of college students reported that the first time they had been forced to have sexual intercourse occurred between ages 13-18 years (Table_5). Female students (11.1%) were significantly more likely than male students (1.4%) to report first being forced to have sexual intercourse between ages 13-18 years.

Nationwide, 3.6% of college students reported that the first time they had been forced to have sexual intercourse occurred at age greater than or equal to 19 years (Table_5). Female students (5.8%) were significantly more likely than male students (0.8%) to report first being forced to have sexual intercourse at age greater than or equal to 19 years; students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (7.2%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (1.6%) to report this; and white students (3.7%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic students (2.0%) to do so. Examination of subgroups by sex revealed a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (11.0%) and those aged 18-24 years (2.4%). In addition, white male students (0.8%) were significantly more likely than black male students (0.0%) to report this.

Engaging in a Physical Fight

Nationwide, 10.2% of college students had been in a physical fight during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_6). Male students (14.2%) were significantly more likely than female students (7.0%) to have been in a physical fight; students aged 18-24 years (13.2%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (4.8%) to have been in a physical fight. Examination of subgroups by sex revealed a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (9.0%) (3.9%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (17.7%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (6.3%). During the 12 months preceding the survey, less than 1% of college students nationwide had been treated by a doctor or nurse for injuries sustained in a physical fight (Table_6).

Suicide Ideation and Attempts

Nationwide, 10.3% of college students had seriously considered attempting suicide during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_7). Students aged 18-24 years (11.4%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (8.3%) to have seriously considered attempting suicide.

Nationwide, 6.7% of college students had made a specific plan to attempt suicide during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_7). Students aged 18-24 years (7.9%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (4.6%) to have made a suicide plan. Examination of subgroups by sex revealed a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (7.5%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (4.6%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (8.2%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (4.7%).

During the 12 months preceding the survey, 1.5% of college students nationwide had attempted suicide and 0.4% of college students had made a suicide attempt that resulted in an injury, poisoning, or overdose that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse (Table_7). Black students (3.4%) were significantly more likely than white students (1.0%) to have attempted suicide.

Tobacco Use Cigarette Use

Nearly three fourths (74.8%) of college students nationwide had ever tried cigarette smoking (i.e., lifetime cigarette use) (Table_8). Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (83.1%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (70.0%) to have ever tried cigarettes. White students (78.2%) were significantly more likely than black (60.7%) and Hispanic (72.7%) students to report this behavior, and Hispanic students (72.7%) were significantly more likely than black students (60.7%) to have done so. Examination of subgroups by sex revealed a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (82.6%) and those aged 18-24 years (69.3%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (83.8%) and those aged 18-24 years (70.8%). The race/ethnicity differences varied by sex. Among females, white students (78.1%) were significantly more likely than black (63.2%) and Hispanic (70.4%) students to report this behavior. Among males, white (78.4%) and Hispanic (75.2%) students were significantly more likely than black students (56.7%) to have ever tried cigarettes.

Nationwide, almost one third (31.3%) of college students had ever smoked at least one cigarette every day for 30 days (i.e., lifetime daily cigarette use) (Table_8). Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (47.0%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (22.6%) to report lifetime daily cigarette smoking. White students (35.5%) were significantly more likely than black (13.6%) and Hispanic (21.1%) students to report this behavior. Students attending 2-year institutions (38.0%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (25.9%) to report lifetime daily cigarette use. Examination of subgroups by sex revealed a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (48.0%) and those aged 18-24 years (23.6%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (45.3%) and those aged 18-24 years (21.5%). Examination of subgroups by sex also revealed a significant race/ethnicity difference among both female and male students. Among females, white students (38.2%) were significantly more likely than black (14.5%) and Hispanic (21.5%) students to report lifetime daily cigarette use. Among males, white students (32.0%) were significantly more likely than black (12.1%) and Hispanic (20.9%) students to do so.

More than one fourth (29.0%) of college students nationwide had smoked cigarettes on greater than or equal to 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current cigarette use) (Table_8). White students (31.8%) were significantly more likely than black (14.2%) and Hispanic (25.0%) students to report current cigarette use, and Hispanic students (25.0%) were significantly more likely than black students (14.2%) to do so. Examination of subgroups by sex demonstrated a significant race/ethnicity difference. Among females, white (31.7%) and Hispanic (23.7%) students were significantly more likely than black students (12.6%) to report current cigarette use. Among males, white students (32.0%) were significantly more likely than black students (16.8%) to do so.

Nationwide, among college students who smoked cigarettes during the 30 days preceding the survey, 34.0% smoked greater than or equal to 11 cigarettes per day (Table_8). Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (54.1%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (22.6%) to smoke greater than or equal to 11 cigarettes per day; white students (37.6%) were significantly more likely than black (18.3%) and Hispanic (10.3%) students to report this behavior, and students attending 2-year institutions (42.7%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (26.4%) to do so. Examination of subgroups by sex revealed a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (52.9%) and those aged 18-24 years (22.3%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (55.8%) and those aged 18-24 years (22.9%). Differences by race/ethnicity varied by sex. Among females, white students (36.1%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic students (14.1%) to report this behavior. Among males, white students (38.8%) were significantly more likely than black (9.0%) and Hispanic (6.3%) students to have smoked greater than or equal to 11 cigarettes per day. Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated a significant difference between female students attending 2-year institutions (43.0%) and those attending 4-year institutions (26.4%) and between male students attending 2-year institutions (41.8%) and those attending 4-year institutions (26.4%).

Nationwide, 16.5% of college students had smoked cigarettes on greater than or equal to 20 of the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current frequent cigarette use) (Table_8). Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (21.3%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (13.5%) to report current frequent cigarette use. White students (19.0%) were significantly more likely than black (7.0%) and Hispanic (8.0%) students to report this behavior, and students attending 2-year institutions (20.2%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (13.4%) to do so. Examination of subgroups by sex revealed a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (21.8%) and those aged 18-24 years (14.6%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (20.5%) and those aged 18-24 years (12.2%). Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated a significant race/ethnicity difference among both female and male students. Among females, white students (20.3%) were significantly more likely than black (8.4%) and Hispanic (8.3%) students to report current frequent cigarette use. Among males, white students (17.2%) were significantly more likely than black (5.0%) and Hispanic (7.8%) students to do so. In addition, male students attending 2-year institutions (19.8%) were significantly more likely than male students attending 4-year institutions (11.2%) to report current frequent cigarette use.

Quit Cigarette Smoking

Nationwide, among college students who were current cigarette smokers, 67.7% had ever tried to quit smoking (Table_9). Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (84.4%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (58.7%) to have tried to quit smoking. Students attending 2-year institutions (76.0%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (60.5%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (85.0%) and those aged 18-24 years (62.7%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (83.5%) and those aged 18-24 years (54.6%). Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated a significant difference between female students attending 2-year institutions (78.1%) and those attending 4-year institutions (65.2%) and between male students attending 2-year institutions (73.2%) and those attending 4-year institutions (55.2%).

Current Smokeless-Tobacco Use

Nationwide, 5.4% of college students had used smokeless tobacco during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current smokeless-tobacco use) (Table_9). Male students (11.7%) were significantly more likely than female students (0.3%) to report current smokeless-tobacco use; students aged 18-24 years (6.8%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (3.0%) to report this behavior, and white students (6.8%) were significantly more likely than black (0.7%) and Hispanic (1.1%) students to do so. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (0.5%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (0.0%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (13.6%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (7.8%). Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated a significant race/ethnicity difference. White male students (14.9%) were significantly more likely than black (1.8%) and Hispanic (2.2%) male students to report current smokeless-tobacco use. Current Tobacco Use

Nearly one third (32.4%) of college students nationwide reported either current cigarette use or current smokeless-tobacco use (i.e., current tobacco use) (Table_9). Male students (36.8%) were significantly more likely than female students (28.9%) to report current tobacco use. White students (36.0%) were significantly more likely than black (15.1%) and Hispanic (26.0%) students to report this behavior. Hispanic students (26.0%) were significantly more likely than black students (15.1%) to do so. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant race/ethnicity difference. Among females, white students (32.4%) were significantly more likely than black (13.0%) and Hispanic (24.0%) students to report current tobacco use. Hispanic female students (24.0%) also were significantly more likely than black female students (13.0%) to do so. Among males, white students (40.6%) were significantly more likely than black (18.2%) and Hispanic (28.5%) students to report current tobacco use.

Alcohol and Other Drug Use Alcohol Use

Nationwide, 89.9% of college students had had at least one drink of alcohol during their lifetime (i.e., lifetime alcohol use) (Table_10). Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (93.6%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (87.8%) to have ever drunk alcohol. White students (92.6%) were significantly more likely than black (82.7%) and Hispanic (87.5%) students to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (92.2%) and those aged 18-24 years (86.8%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (95.8%) and those aged 18-24 years (88.9%). Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated a significant race/ethnicity difference between white (92.2%) and black (81.0%) female students and between white (93.2%) and black (85.4%) male students.

Nationwide, 68.2% of college students had had at least one drink of alcohol during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e, current alcohol use) (Table_10). Male students (72.9%) were significantly more likely than female students (64.5%) to report current alcohol use. White (72.4%) and Hispanic (63.6%) students were significantly more likely than black students (54.2%) to report current alcohol use. Students attending 4-year institutions (72.5%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (63.1%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex revealed that the race/ethnicity differences varied by sex. Among females, white students (69.7%) were significantly more likely than black (49.0%) and Hispanic (58.0%) students to report current alcohol use. Among males, white students (75.7%) were significantly more likely than black students (62.6%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated a significant difference between female students attending 4-year institutions (69.0%) and those attending 2-year institutions (59.4%) and between male students attending 4-year institutions (76.6%) and those attending 2-year institutions (67.9%).

Nationwide, 4.2% of college students had drunk alcohol on greater than or equal to 20 of the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current frequent alcohol use) (Table_10). Male students (6.6%) were significantly more likely than female students (2.2%) to report current frequent alcohol use. White students (4.7%) also were significantly more likely than black (1.6%) and Hispanic (2.0%) students to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant race/ethnicity difference among males. White male students (7.6%) were significantly more likely than black (2.4%) and Hispanic male students (3.0%) to report frequent alcohol use. More than one third (34.5%) of college students nationwide had had five or more drinks of alcohol on at least one occasion during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current episodic heavy drinking) (Table_10). Male students (43.8%) were significantly more likely than female students (27.0%) to report current episodic heavy drinking; students aged 18-24 years (41.5%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (22.0%) to report this behavior; white students (39.5%) were significantly more likely than black (12.5%) and Hispanic (30.2%) students to do so, and Hispanic students (30.2%) were significantly more likely than black students (12.5%) to report current episodic heavy drinking. Students attending 4-year institutions (41.0%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (26.8%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (34.8%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (15.7%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (48.7%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (32.2%). Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated that the race/ethnicity differences varied by sex. Among females, white students (31.6%) were significantly more likely than black (6.1%) and Hispanic (22.6%) students to report current episodic heavy drinking. In addition, Hispanic female students (22.6%) were significantly more likely than black female students (6.1%) to report this behavior. Among males, white (49.4%) and Hispanic (39.9%) students were significantly more likely than black (22.8%) students to report current episodic heavy drinking. Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated a significant difference between female students attending 4-year institutions (32.8%) and those attending 2-year institutions (20.6%) and between male students attending 4-year institutions (50.7%) and those attending 2-year institutions (34.8%).

Marijuana Use

Nationwide, 48.7% of college students had used marijuana during their lifetime (i.e., lifetime marijuana use) (Table_11). Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (59.6%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (42.5%) to report lifetime marijuana use. White students (52.5%) were significantly more likely than black (39.1%) and Hispanic (43.0%) students to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (58.1%) and those aged 18-24 years (40.8%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (62.3%) and those aged 18-24 years (44.4%). The race/ethnicity difference varied by sex. Among females, white students (51.6%) were significantly more likely than black students (36.2%) to report lifetime marijuana use. Among males, white students (53.7%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic students (42.4%) to do so.

Nationwide, 14.0% of college students had used marijuana at least once during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current marijuana use) (Table_11). Male students (17.1%) were significantly more likely than female students (11.6%) to report current marijuana use; students aged 18-24 years (17.3%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (8.3%) to report this behavior; and white students (15.5%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic students (7.3%) to do so. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (14.7% (6.9%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (20.3%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (10.6%). Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated a significant race/ethnicity difference. Among females, white students (13.0%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic students (6.9%) to report current marijuana use. Among males, white students (18.7%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic students (7.8%) to do so.

Cocaine Use

Nationwide, 14.4% of college students had used some form of cocaine during their lifetime (Table_11). Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (28.1%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (6.6%) to have ever used cocaine. Lifetime cocaine use was significantly higher for white (16.0%) and Hispanic (15.9%) students than black students (7.9%). Students attending 2-year institutions (19.6%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (10.1%) to have ever used cocaine. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (25.5%) and those aged 18-24 years (6.5%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (32.4%) and those aged 18-24 years (6.7%). Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated a significant race/ethnicity difference. Among females, white students (15.7%) were significantly more likely than black students (7.9%) to report lifetime cocaine use. Among males, white students (16.4%) were significantly more likely than black students (8.0%) to do so. In addition, Hispanic female students (15.7%) were significantly more likely than black female students (7.9%) to report lifetime cocaine use. A significant difference by sex was observed between female students attending 2-year institutions (18.6%) and those attending 4-year institutions (10.1%) and between male students attending 2-year institutions (20.9%) and those attending 4-year institutions (10.2%). Nationwide, less than 1% (0.8%) of college students had used some form of cocaine at least once during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current cocaine use) (Table_11).

Nationwide, 4.0% of college students had used crack or free base forms of cocaine during their lifetime (Table_11). Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (8.4%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (1.6%) to have ever used crack cocaine, and students attending 2-year institutions (6.4%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (2.0%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (6.9%) and those aged 18-24 years (1.3%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (10.8%) and those aged 18-24 years (1.9%) between female students attending 2-year institutions (5.1%) and those attending 4-year institutions (2.0%) and between male students attending 2-year institutions (8.2%) and those attending 4-year institutions (2.0%).

Inhalant Use

Nationwide, 9.1% of college students reported they had ever sniffed glue, breathed the contents of aerosol spray cans, or inhaled any paints or sprays to get high (i.e., lifetime inhalant use) (Table_12). Male students (11.7%) were significantly more likely than female students (7.0%) to report lifetime inhalant use, and white students (9.6%) were significantly more likely than black students (5.6%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant race/ethnicity difference between white (12.5%) and Hispanic (7.3%) male students.

Steroid Use

Nationwide, 1.4% of college students had used steroids without a doctor's prescription during their lifetime (Table_12). Male students (2.6%) were significantly more likely than female students (0.4%) to have ever used steroids.

Injecting-Drug Use

Nationwide, 1.7% of college students had injected illegal drugs during their lifetime (Table_12). Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (3.3%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (0.7%) to report injecting-drug use. Students attending 2-year institutions (2.8%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (0.8%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (2.9%) and those aged 18-24 years (0.2%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (4.0%) and those aged 18-24 years (1.3%). Female students attending 2-year institutions (2.2%) were significantly more likely to report injecting-drug use than female students attending 4-year institutions (0.5%).

Other Illegal-Drug Use

Nationwide, 20.5% of college students reported use of other illegal drugs during their lifetime (e.g., LSD, PCP, ecstasy, mushrooms {i.e., hallucinogenic}, speed, ice, or heroin) (Table_13). Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (28.5%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (16.1%) to have ever used other illegal drugs. White students (24.0%) were significantly more likely than black (5.9%) and Hispanic (14.7%) students to report this behavior. Hispanic students (14.7%) were significantly more likely than black students (5.9%) to do so. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (24.9%) and those aged 18-24 years (14.7%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (34.3%) and those aged 18-24 years (17.6%). Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated a significant race/ethnicity difference. Among females, white students (22.2%) were significantly more likely than black (4.5%) and Hispanic (14.1%) students to have ever used other illegal drugs. In addition, Hispanic female students (14.1%) were significantly more likely than black female students (4.5%) to report this behavior. Among males, white students (26.5%) were significantly more likely than black (8.1%) and Hispanic (15.6%) students to do so. Male students attending 2-year institutions (26.8%) were significantly more likely than those attending 4-year institutions (19.6%) to report this behavior.

Nationwide, 2.4% of college students had used other illegal drugs (e.g., LSD, PCP, ecstasy, mushrooms {i.e., hallucinogenic}, speed, ice, or heroin) during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current other illegal drug use) (Table_13). Male students (3.5%) were significantly more likely than female students (1.6%) to report current other illegal drug use. Students aged 18-24 years (3.4%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (0.9%) to report this behavior. White students (2.6%) were significantly more likely than black students (0.8%) to report current other illegal drug use. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (2.2%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (0.6%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (4.6%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (1.4%). Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated a significant race/ethnicity difference among females. White (1.8%) and Hispanic (2.1%) female students were significantly more likely than black female students (0.1%) to report current other illegal drug use.

Current Combined Illegal Drug and Alcohol Use

During the 30 days preceding the survey, 9.4% of college students had used any illegal drug in combination with drinking alcohol (i.e., current combined illegal drug and alcohol use) (Table_13). Male students (12.6%) were significantly more likely than female students (6.8%) to report current combined illegal drug and alcohol use. Students aged 18-24 years (11.6%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (5.5%) to report this behavior. White students (10.7%) were significantly more likely than black (4.6%) and Hispanic (6.4%) students to report current combined illegal drug and alcohol use. Students attending 4-year institutions (10.8%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (7.7%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (8.9%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (4.0%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (14.5%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (8.1%). Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated a significant race/ethnicity difference among females. White female students (8.3%) were significantly more likely than black female students (1.9%) to report current combined illegal drug and alcohol use.

Initiation of Risk Behaviors Cigarette Smoking

Nationwide, 12.6% of college students had smoked a whole cigarette at age less than 13 years (Table_14). Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (15.3%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (10.8%) to have smoked a whole cigarette at age less than 13 years, and white students (13.4%) were significantly more likely than black students (8.2%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated that the age group and the race/ethnicity differences were significant only for male students. Male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (18.9%) were significantly more likely than male students aged 18-24 years (12.2%) to have smoked a whole cigarette at age less than 13 years, and white male students (15.2%) were significantly more likely than black male students (6.1%) to report this behavior.

Alcohol Use

Nationwide, 12.2% of college students had their first drink of alcohol (other than a few sips) at age less than 13 years (Table_14). Male students (17.1%) were significantly more likely than female students (8.3%) to have tried alcohol at age less than 13 years.

Marijuana Use

Nationwide 2.9% of college students had tried marijuana at age less than 13 years (Table_14). Male students (3.8%) were significantly more likely than female students (2.2%) to have tried marijuana at age less than 13 years.

Cocaine Use

Nationwide, only 0.1% of college students reported that they had tried cocaine (including powder, crack, or free base forms of cocaine) at age less than 13 years (Table_14).

Sexual Behaviors that Contribute to Unintended Pregnancy and STDs, Including HIV Infection Sexual Intercourse

Nationwide, 86.1% of college students had had sexual intercourse during their lifetime (i.e., sexual experience) (Table_15). Overall, female students (87.8%) were significantly more likely than male students (84.0%) to report sexual experience; students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (97.8%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (79.5%) to report this behavior; black students (92.8%) were significantly more likely than white (86.7%) and Hispanic (85.2%) students to report sexual experience; students attending 2-year institutions (89.9%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (82.9%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (98.2%) and those aged 18-24 years (81.0%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (97.1%) and those aged 18-24 years (77.8%). Differences by race/ethnicity varied by sex. Among females, black students (91.7%) were significantly more likely to report sexual experience than Hispanic students (83.6%). Among males, black students (94.5%) were significantly more likely to report sexual experience than white students (84.2%). Significant differences also were observed between female students attending 2-year institutions (90.9%) and those attending 4-year institutions (85.1%) and between male students attending 2-year institutions (88.5%) and those attending 4-year institutions (80.6%).

Nationwide, 2.8% of college students first had sexual intercourse at age less than 13 years (Table_15). Male students (4.2%) were significantly more likely than female students (1.5%) to have had sexual intercourse at age less than 13 years; students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (3.9%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (1.8%) to report this behavior; and black (6.3%) and Hispanic (5.0%) students were significantly more likely than white students (1.7%) to do so. Students attending 2-year institutions (4.1%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (1.7%) to have had sexual intercourse at age less than 13 years. Examination of subgroups by sex revealed a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (2.4%) and those aged 18-24 years (0.9%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (6.3%) and those aged 18-24 years (2.8%). The race/ethnicity difference was significant only for black (13.5%) and white (2.4%) male students. Significant differences also were found between female students attending 2-year institutions (2.4%) and those attending 4-year institutions (0.8%) and between male students attending 2-year institutions (6.1%) and those attending 4-year institutions (2.8%).

More than one third (34.5%) of college students nationwide had had sexual intercourse during their lifetime with six or more sex partners (Table_15). Male students (37.8%) were significantly more likely than female students (31.8%) to have had six or more sex partners during their lifetime. Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (49.6%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (25.7%) to report this behavior. Black students (46.3%) were significantly more likely than white (34.8%) and Hispanic (30.6%) students to do so. Students attending 2-year institutions (39.7%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (30.2%) to have had six or more sex partners during their lifetime. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (44.0%) and those aged 18-24 years (23.9%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (58.8%) and those aged 18-24 years (27.8%). Differences by race/ethnicity varied by sex. Among females, black (37.1%) and white (32.7%) students were significantly more likely than Hispanic (22.3%) students to have had six or more sex partners during their lifetime. Among males, black students (60.2%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic (41.1%) and white (37.4%) students to report this behavior. A significant difference also was found between female students attending 2-year institutions (36.7%) and those attending 4-year institutions (27.5%) and between male students attending 2-year institutions (43.4%) and those attending 4-year institutions (33.5%).

More than two thirds (68.2%) of college students nationwide had had sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey (i.e., current sexual activity) (Table_15). Female students (71.4%) were significantly more likely than male students (64.1%) to report current sexual activity; students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (78.7%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (62.1%) to report this behavior; black students (74.8%) were significantly more likely than white students (68.7%) to report current sexual activity, and students attending 2-year institutions (71.4%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (65.6%) to do so. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (78.0%) and those aged 18-24 years (66.8%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (79.8%) and those aged 18-24 years (56.8%). The race/ethnicity and institution-type difference was significant only among male students. Black male students (75.6%) were significantly more likely than white male students (64.2%) to report current sexual activity, and male students attending 2-year institutions (68.3%) were significantly more likely than those attending 4-year institutions (61.0%) to do so.

Nationwide, 62.4% of college students reported having had sexual intercourse during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., recent sexual activity) (Table_15). Female students (66.1%) were significantly more likely than male students (57.5%) to report having had recent sexual activity. Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (74.4%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (55.4%) to report this behavior. Students attending 2-year institutions (66.2%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (59.3%) to do so. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (74.2%) and those aged 18-24 years (60.4%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (74.6%) and those aged 18-24 years (49.8%). In addition, black male students (68.6%) were significantly more likely than white male students (57.1%) to report recent sexual activity.

Contraceptive Use

Nationwide, among currently sexually active college students, 79.8% reported that either they or their partner had used contraception (e.g., birth control pills, condoms, withdrawal, or some other method) to prevent pregnancy the last time they had sexual intercourse (Table_16). Students aged 18-24 years (86.0%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (71.1%) to have used contraception. White students (81.0%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic students (74.7%) to report this behavior, and students attending 4-year institutions (84.3%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (74.8%) to do so. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated that the age group and race/ethnicity differences were significant only for female students. Female students aged 18-24 years (88.8%) were significantly more likely than those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (68.7%) to report contraceptive use, and white female students (81.6%) were significantly more likely to report contraceptive use than Hispanic female students (70.7%). Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated a significant difference between female students attending 4-year institutions (85.0%) and those attending 2-year institutions (74.9%) and between male students attending 4-year institutions (83.3%) and those attending 2-year institutions (74.6%).

Birth Control Pill Use

Nationwide, among college students who were currently sexually active, 34.5% reported that either they or their partner had used birth control pills prior to last sexual intercourse (Table_16). Students aged 18-24 years (43.9%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (21.4%) to report use of birth control pills. White students (37.6%) were significantly more likely than black (25.6%) and Hispanic (28.8%) students to report this behavior. Students attending 4-year institutions (40.6%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (27.6%) to do so. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (48.1%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (19.0%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (38.6%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (25.2%). Examination of subgroups by sex also revealed significant race/ethnicity differences. Among females, white students (38.5%) were significantly more likely than black (27.3%) and Hispanic (26.5%) students to report birth control pill use. Among males, white students (36.3%) were significantly more likely than black students (23.0%) to do so. In addition, significant differences were found between female students attending 4-year institutions (42.8%) and those attending 2-year institutions (27.9%) and between male students attending 4-year institutions (37.9%) and those attending 2-year institutions (27.1%).

Condom Use

Among currently sexually active college students nationwide, 29.6% reported that either they or their partner had used a condom during last sexual intercourse (Table_16). Male students (35.2%) were significantly more likely than female students (25.8%) to report condom use during last sexual intercourse; students aged 18-24 years (37.7%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (18.5%) to report this behavior, and black students (42.8%) were significantly more likely than white (27.5%) and Hispanic (29.8%) students to do so. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (33.6%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (15.9%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (43.2%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (22.9%). Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated significant race/ethnicity differences. Among females, black students (36.7%) were significantly more likely than white (23.9%) and Hispanic (25.3%) students to report condom use during last sexual intercourse. Among males, black students (52.3%) were significantly more likely than white (33.0%) and Hispanic (36.1%) students to do so. In addition, female students attending 4-year institutions (29.4%) were significantly more likely to report condom use during last sexual intercourse than those attending 2-year institutions (21.9%).

Among recently sexually active college students nationwide, 27.9% reported that either they or their partner used a condom always or most of the time (i.e., consistent condom use) (Table_16). Male students (32.4%) were significantly more likely than female students (25.1%) to report consistent condom use; students aged 18-24 years (36.5%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (17.1%) to report this behavior; black (42.8%) students were significantly more likely than white (25.2%) and Hispanic (32.0%) students to report consistent condom use; and students attending 4-year institutions (31.7%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (23.9%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (34.2%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (14.2%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (39.7%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (21.9%). Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated significant race/ethnicity differences. Among females, black students (35.6%) were significantly more likely than white students (22.9%) to report consistent condom use. Among males, black students (53.8%) were significantly more likely than white students (28.8%) to report this behavior. In addition, female students attending 4-year institutions (29.0%) were significantly more likely to report consistent condom use than female students attending 2-year institutions (21.1%).

Alcohol and Drug Use at Last Sexual Intercourse

Nationwide, among recently sexually active college students, 16.6% reported they had drunk alcohol or used drugs at last sexual intercourse (Table_17). Male students (21.8%) were significantly more likely than female students (12.8%) to report this behavior; students aged 18-24 years (19.3%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (13.1%) to have used alcohol or drugs at last sexual intercourse. White students (17.5%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic students (12.6%) to report this behavior, and students attending 4-year institutions (19.4%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (13.6%) to do so. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated that the age group, race/ethnicity, and institution-type differences (i.e., 2- or 4-year institutions) were significant for males only. Male students aged 18-24 years (26.6%) were significantly more likely than those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (15.3%) to have used alcohol or drugs at last sexual intercourse; white male students (23.3%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic male students (13.5%) to report this behavior; and male students attending 4-year institutions (26.1%) were significantly more likely to have used alcohol or drugs at last sexual intercourse than male students attending 2-year institutions (16.8%).

Pregnancy

Nationwide, 35.1% of college students reported that they had been pregnant or gotten someone pregnant (Table_17). Female students (42.8%) were significantly more likely than male students (25.3%) to report this. Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (69.7%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (15.1%) to report this behavior. Black students (45.6%) were significantly more likely than white (35.5%) and Hispanic (32.0%) students to have been pregnant or gotten someone pregnant. Students attending 2-year institutions (48.3%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (24.2%) to have done so. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (78.2%) and those aged 18-24 years (18.5% equal to 25 years (55.9%) and those aged 18-24 years (11.4%). The race/ethnicity difference varied by sex. Among females, black students (54.3%) were significantly more likely than white (42.9%) and Hispanic (35.0%) students to have ever been pregnant. Among males, black (29.4%) and Hispanic (35.2%) students were significantly more likely than white students (21.9%) to have ever gotten someone pregnant. Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated a significant difference between female students attending 2-year institutions (56.1%) and those attending 4-year institutions (30.9%) and between male students attending 2-year institutions (37.2%) and those attending 4-year institutions (16.4%).

Dietary Behaviors Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables

More than one fourth (26.3%) of college students nationwide had eaten five or more servings of fruits and vegetables ***** during the day preceding the survey (Table_18). Hispanic students (31.5%) were significantly more likely than white students (24.6%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant race/ethnicity difference between black (38.8%) and white (25.8%) male students.

Consumption of Foods Typically High in Fat Content

Nationwide, 78.2% of college students had eaten two or fewer servings of foods typically high in fat content ****** during the day preceding the survey (Table_18). Female students (84.9%) were significantly more likely than male students (69.6%) to have eaten two or fewer servings of such foods. Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (82.3%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (75.6%) to report this behavior. White (79.1%) and Hispanic (81.2%) students were significantly more likely than black students (69.3%) to have eaten two or fewer servings of such foods. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (77.1%) and those aged 18-24 years (65.9%). The race/ethnicity difference varied by sex. Among females, white (86.4%) and Hispanic (84.7%) students were significantly more likely than black students (75.1%) to report such behavior. Among males, only Hispanic students (76.8%) were significantly more likely than black students (60.4%) to have eaten two or fewer servings of foods typically high in fat content.

Overweight

Nationwide, 20.5% of college students were classified as being overweight based on body mass index (BMI) calculations (Table_19). Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (28.8%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (15.5%) to be overweight. Black students (33.5%) were significantly more likely than white (19.5%) and Hispanic (20.8%) students to be overweight. Students attending 2-year institutions (24.8%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (16.9%) to be overweight. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (29.0%) and those aged 18-24 years (13.9%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (28.5%) and students aged 18-24 years (17.2%). Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant race/ethnicity difference. Black female students (35.8%) were significantly more likely than white (18.5%) and Hispanic (16.8%) female students to be overweight. Black male students (30.0%) were significantly more likely than white male students (20.7%) to be overweight. In addition, female students attending 2-year institutions (25.3%) were significantly more likely than those attending 4-year institutions (15.6%) to be overweight.

Nationwide, 41.6% of college students believed themselves to be overweight (Table_19). Female students (48.8%) were significantly more likely than male students (32.4%) to perceive themselves as overweight. Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (53.6%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (34.4%) to report this behavior. Students attending 2-year institutions (46.1%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (37.7%) to do so. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (59.0%) and those aged 18-24 years (41.8%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (44.8%) and those aged 18-24 years (26.5%). In addition, female students attending 2-year institutions (53.4%) were significantly more likely than female students attending 4-year institutions (44.7%) to perceive themselves as being overweight.

Attempted Weight Loss

Nationwide, 46.4% of college students were attempting weight loss at the time of the survey (Table_20). Female students (59.8%) were significantly more likely than male students (29.6%) to be attempting weight loss. Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (51.9%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (43.3%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (37.0%) and those aged 18-24 years (26.2%). In addition, white female students (61.5%) were significantly more likely than black female students (53.5%) to be attempting weight loss.

Almost one third (30.8%) of college students nationwide had dieted either to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_20). Female students (42.1%) were significantly more likely than male students (16.7%) to have dieted to lose weight. Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (36.2%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (27.8%) to report this behavior. Students attending 2-year institutions (34.3%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (27.9%) to have dieted to lose weight. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (22.4%) and those aged 18-24 years (14.0%). A significant difference also was found between female students attending 2-year institutions (45.5%) and those attending 4-year institutions (37.0%).

Approximately half (53.6%) of college students had exercised either to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_20). Female students (62.6%) were significantly more likely than male students (42.3%) to have exercised to either lose weight or keep from gaining weight. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant race/ethnicity difference among white (65.6%) and black (51.3%) female students.

Nationwide, 2.6% of college students had either vomited or taken laxatives to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_20). Female students (4.2%) were significantly more likely than male students (0.6%) to have either vomited or taken laxatives to lose weight or keep from gaining weight. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant race/ethnicity difference among white (4.4%) and black (1.7%) female students.

Nationwide, 4.3% of college students had taken diet pills either to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_20). Female students (7.0%) were significantly more likely than male students (1.1%) to have taken diet pills to either lose weight or keep from gaining weight. Students attending 2-year institutions (5.9%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (3.1%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant difference between female students attending 2-year institutions (8.9%) and those attending 4-year institutions (5.3%).

Physical Activity Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity

More than one third (37.6%) of college students nationwide had participated in activities that had made them sweat and breathe hard for at least 20 minutes on greater than or equal to 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey (i.e., vigorous physical activity) (Table_21). Male students (43.7%) were significantly more likely than female students (33.0%) to report vigorous physical activity. Students aged 18-24 years (41.8%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (30.6%) to report this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between male students aged 18-24 years (48.9%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (32.2%).

Nationwide, 19.5% of college students had walked or bicycled for at least 30 minutes on greater than or equal to 5 of the 7 days preceding the survey (i.e., moderate physical activity) (Table_21). Black students (27.6%) were significantly more likely than white students (18.2%) to report moderate physical activity. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant race/ethnicity difference among black (32.0%) and white (18.1%) male students.

Stretching Exercises

Nationwide, 34.1% of college students had done stretching exercises (e.g., toe touching, knee bending, and leg stretching) on greater than or equal to 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey (Table_21). Black male students (44.1%) were significantly more likely than white male students (33.0%) to report this behavior.

Strengthening Exercises

Nationwide, 29.9% of college students had done strengthening exercises (e.g., push-ups, sit-ups, and weight lifting) on greater than or equal to 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey (Table_21). Male students (33.9%) were significantly more likely than female students (26.8%) to have done strengthening exercises. Students aged 18-24 years (33.4%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (23.5%) to have reported this behavior. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (30.0%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (21.8%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (37.1%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (26.3%). Black male students (46.3%) were significantly more likely than white male students (32.5%) to have done strengthening exercises, and female students attending 4-year institutions (29.5%) were significantly more likely than female students attending 2-year institutions (23.7%) to report this behavior.

Participation in Physical Education (PE) Class

Nationwide, 20.8% of college students were enrolled in a PE class during the 1994-1995 school year (Table_22). Students aged 18-24 years (26.4%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (11.2%) to have been enrolled in a PE class. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (25.5%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (11.8%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (27.4%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (10.0%).

Participation on Sports Teams

Nationwide, during the 1994-1995 school year, 17.5% of college students had participated on one or more college or university sports teams (intramural or extramural) (Table_22). Male students (26.6%) were significantly more likely than female students (10.3%) to have participated on a sports team. Students aged 18-24 years (25.4%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (3.6%) to report this behavior. White (18.3%) and black (18.8%) students were significantly more likely than Hispanic students (9.4%) to have participated on a sports team. Students attending 4-year institutions (25.8%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (7.5%) to have done so. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (16.4%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (1.4%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (35.1%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (7.1%). Black (35.9%) and white (27.8%) male students were significantly more likely than Hispanic male students (13.3%) to have participated on a sports team. Significant differences also were found between female students attending 4-year institutions (15.4%) and those attending 2-year institutions (4.7%) and between male students attending 4-year institutions (38.0%) and those attending 2-year institutions (11.4%).

Health Information and HIV Testing Injury Prevention and Safety

Nationwide, 22.5% of college students reported that they had received information on injury prevention and safety from their college or university (Table_23). Students aged 18-24 years (25.8%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (17.2%) to have received this information. Students attending 4-year institutions (25.8%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (18.6%) to have received this information. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (26.4%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (17.0%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (25.1%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (17.5%). Significant differences also were observed between female students attending 4-year institutions (25.8%) and those attending 2-year institutions (19.1%) and between male students attending 4-year institutions (26.2%) and those attending 2-year institutions (18.4%).

Violence Prevention

One third (33.4%) of college students reported that they had received violence prevention information from their college or university (Table_23). Students aged 18-24 years (38.4%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (24.8%) to have received this information. Students attending 4-year institutions (41.8%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (23.3%) to have received this information. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (40.6%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (26.2%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (36.0%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (22.7%). Significant differences also were found between female students attending 4-year institutions (43.4%) and those attending 2-year institutions (25.6%) and between male students attending 4-year institutions (40.3%) and those attending 2-year institutions (20.7%).

Suicide Prevention

Nationwide, 17.6% of college students reported that they had received information on suicide prevention from their college or university (Table_23). Students aged 18-24 years (20.6%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (12.3%) to have received this information. Students attending 4-year institutions (22.1%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (12.2%) to have received this information. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (20.3%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (11.4%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (21.0%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (13.7%). Significant differences also were observed between female students attending 4-year institutions (21.3%) and those attending 2-year institutions (11.8%) and between male students attending 4-year institutions (23.3%) and those attending 2-year institutions (12.9%).

Pregnancy Prevention

Nationwide, 26.8% of college students reported that they had received information on pregnancy prevention from their college or university (Table_24). Students aged 18-24 years (33.6%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (15.3%) to have received this information. Black students (35.5%) were significantly more likely than white students (25.2%) to have received this information. Students attending 4-year institutions (32.7%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (19.7%) to report having received this information. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (37.6%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (15.0%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (29.4%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (15.7%). Examination of subgroups by sex indicated that the race/ethnicity difference was significant only for female students. Black female students (36.8%) were significantly more likely than white female students (26.3%) to have received information on pregnancy prevention. Significant differences also were found between female students attending 4-year institutions (34.8%) and those attending 2-year institutions (21.3%) and between male students attending 4-year institutions (30.7%) and those attending 2-year institutions (18.0%).

STD Prevention

Nationwide, 43.4% of college students reported that they had received STD prevention information from their college or university (Table_24). Students aged 18-24 years (53.2%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (27.0%) to report having received STD prevention information; black students (52.4%) were significantly more likely than white students (41.6%) to have received this information; and students attending 4-year institutions (52.3%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (32.8%) to have received this information. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (52.4%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (26.1%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (53.9%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (28.8%). Examination of subgroups by sex indicated that the race/ethnicity difference was significant only for male students. Black male students (57.3%) were significantly more likely than white male students (44.5%) to have received this information. Significant differences also were found between female students attending 4-year institutions (50.4%) and those attending 2-year institutions (32.5%) and between male students attending 4-year institutions (55.0%) and those attending 2-year institutions (33.9%).

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or Prevention of HIV Infection

Almost half (49.1%) of college students nationwide reported that they had received information on AIDS or HIV infection prevention from their college or university (Table_24). Students aged 18-24 years (57.9%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (34.4%) to have received this information. Students attending 4-year institutions (58.0%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (38.4%) to report having received this information. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (57.8% (34.3%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (54.0%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (34.9%). Significant differences also were observed between female students attending 4-year institutions (57.0%) and those attending 2-year institutions (38.9%) and between male students attending 4-year institutions (59.8%) and those attending 2-year institutions (38.5%).

HIV Education

Nationwide, 41.4% of college students had been taught about AIDS or HIV infection in their college classes (Table_24). Students aged 18-24 years (46.8%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (32.2%) to have been taught about AIDS or HIV in a college class. Black students (49.7%) were significantly more likely than white students (39.6%) to have received this information in a college class. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (48.1%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (34.6%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (45.4%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (28.4%). The race/ethnicity difference was significant only for black (51.5%) and white (40.9%) female students.

Testing for HIV Infection

Nationwide, 38.8% of college students had ever had their blood tested for HIV infection (Table_24). Students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (50.2%) were significantly more likely than students aged 18-24 years (32.1%) to have been tested; black (51.0%) and Hispanic (45.4%) students were significantly more likely than white students (37.8%) to report having had their blood tested; and students attending 2-year institutions (43.5%) were significantly more likely than students attending 4-year institutions (34.9%) to have done so. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (45.3%) and those aged 18-24 years (34.6%) and between male students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (57.9%) and those aged 18-24 years (29.3%). Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated a significant race/ethnicity difference among both females and males. Among females, black students (49.4%) were significantly more likely than white students (37.5%) to have been tested. Among males, black students (53.5%) were significantly more likely than white students (38.2%) to do so. Significant differences also were found between female students attending 2-year institutions (43.1%) and those attending 4-year institutions (34.9%) and between male students attending 2-year institutions (44.0%) and those attending 4-year institutions (34.8%).

Tobacco Use Prevention

Nationwide, 27.8% of college students reported receiving information on tobacco use prevention from their college or university (Table_25). Students aged 18-24 years (31.8%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (21.2%) to have received this information. Students attending 4-year institutions (31.9%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (22.9%) to report having received this information. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (30.3%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (20.2%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (33.5%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (23.0%). Significant differences also were found between female students attending 4-year institutions (30.2%) and those attending 2-year institutions (21.9%) and between male students attending 4-year institutions (34.3%) and those attending 2-year institutions (24.9%).

Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention

Almost half (49.2%) of college students nationwide reported they had received information on alcohol and other drug use prevention from their college or university (Table_25). Male students (53.3%) were significantly more likely than female students (46.5%) to report having received this information; students aged 18-24 years (59.4%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (32.4%) to report having received this information; and students attending 4-year institutions (58.2%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (38.3%) to have received health prevention information on alcohol and other drugs. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant difference between female students aged 18-24 years (57.6%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (30.4%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (61.3%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (36.0%). Significant differences also were observed between female students attending 4-year institutions (55.4%) and those attending 2-year institutions (36.7%) and between male students attending 4-year institutions (62.1%) and those attending 2-year institutions (41.5%).

Dietary Behaviors and Nutrition

Nationwide, 30.4% of college students reported having received information on dietary behaviors and nutrition from their college or university (Table_25). Female students (34.2%) were significantly more likely than male students (26.0%) to report having received this information. Students aged 18-24 years (33.5%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (25.6%) to have received this information. Students attending 4-year institutions (35.2%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (24.6%) to report having received this information. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated that the age group difference was significant only among females. Female students aged 18-24 years (38.9%) were significantly more likely than those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (27.5%) to have received information on dietary behaviors and nutrition. In addition, white female students (34.4%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic female students (27.1%) to have done so. Examination of subgroups by sex also indicated a significant difference between female students attending 4-year institutions (39.9%) and those attending 2-year institutions (28.0%) and between male students attending 4-year institutions (30.1%) and those attending 2-year institutions (20.5%).

Physical Activity and Fitness

More than one third (35.9%) of college students reported that they had received information on physical activity and fitness from their college or university (Table_25). Students aged 18-24 years (40.2%) were significantly more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years (29.3%) to have received this information. Students attending 4-year institutions (39.4%) were significantly more likely than students attending 2-year institutions (31.6%) to report having received this information. Examination of subgroups by sex indicated a significant age group difference between female students aged 18-24 years (39.4%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (30.0%) and between male students aged 18-24 years (41.1%) and those aged greater than or equal to 25 years (28.4%). A significant difference also was found between female students attending 4-year institutions (39.0%) and those attending 2-year institutions (31.5%).

DISCUSSION

These results indicate that many college students throughout the United States engage in behaviors that place them at risk for serious health problems. Certain risks are particularly notable due to the large numbers of students affected. For example, alcohol consumption is an important public health problem among college students. Episodic heavy drinking is more prevalent among college students than among their peers of the same age who do not attend college (8) and is strongly related to serious injury and injury-related deaths, particularly involving motor vehicle crashes (9). Alcohol use among college students also is related to unsafe sexual behavior, violent behavior, and academic problems (10-12) One third (34.5%) of students reported episodic heavy drinking during the 30 days preceding the survey, 27.4% reported drinking and driving during the 30 days preceding the survey, and 30.5% of students who had gone boating or swimming during the 12 months preceding the survey had drunk alcohol while boating or swimming. Although alcohol abuse prevention programs have been implemented on many college campuses, more effective policies and programs are needed to address this issue. BACCHUS (Boost Alcohol Consciousness Concerning the Health of University Students) and GAMMA (Greeks Advocating for Mature Management of Alcohol) are two national collegiate peer education networks that, combined, have chapters on more than 750 campuses and an active student membership exceeding 24,000. These organizations provide training and support for peer-facilitated prevention activities, usually related to alcohol and other drug use and sexual responsibility.

Sexual assault also is an important public health problem among college students. The Sexual Experiences Survey conducted during 1984-1985 indicated that 15% of females reported having been raped and an additional 12% reported that someone had attempted to rape them since age 14 (13). The NCHRBS indicates that one in five female college students has been forced to have sexual intercourse during her lifetime.

Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death in the United States (14). However, 29.0% of college students reported current cigarette use. Although fewer college students (16.5%) smoke cigarettes frequently, any cigarette use may place students at risk for long-term addiction and associated health problems (15).

Many college students are at risk for STDs, including HIV infection, and unintended pregnancy. Approximately two thirds of gonorrhea cases (16) and 90% of all chlamydia cases (CDC, unpublished data, 1994) occur among persons aged less than 25 years. Rates of unintended pregnancy among persons aged 15-24 years are higher than for any other age group (17). In 1988, almost two thirds of births to females aged 15-24 years were unintended. The NCHRBS indicates that of students who had had sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey, only 29.6% had used a condom at last sexual intercourse and 34.5% had used birth control pills. Increased use of both condoms and effective methods of contraception among college students is necessary to decrease rates of STD and unintended pregnancy.

Approximately one in five (20.5%) college students was overweight. Survey results indicated that 73.7% of students had failed to eat five or more servings of fruits and vegetables during the day preceding the survey, 21.8% had eaten three or more high fat foods during the day preceding the survey, and few students had engaged in vigorous (37.6%) or moderate (19.5%) physical activity at recommended levels. These findings are consistent with data demonstrating increasing overweight among adults in the United States (18).

Although the underlying causes (e.g., economic factors or cultural influences) for subgroup differences could not be examined (19), subgroup differences highlighted in this report can assist in identifying the need for education and services among subgroups with higher prevalence of risk behaviors. For example, male students were more likely than female students to report rarely or never wearing safety belts when riding in or driving a car; drinking alcohol and driving a car or other vehicle; drinking alcohol while boating or swimming; carrying a weapon or gun; physical fighting; current smokeless tobacco use; current tobacco use; current alcohol use; current frequent alcohol use; current episodic heavy drinking; current marijuana use; lifetime inhalant use; lifetime illegal steroid use; current other illegal drug use; current combined illegal drug and alcohol use; initiating alcohol use, marijuana use, and sexual intercourse at age less than 13 years; having six or more sex partners during their lifetime; alcohol and drug use at last sexual intercourse; and eating more than two servings of foods typically high in fat content.

In contrast, female students were more likely than male students to report ever being forced to have sexual intercourse against their will; having first forced sexual intercourse at age less than 13 years, 13-18 years, or greater than or equal to 19 years; ever having had sexual intercourse; current and recent sexual activity; not using a condom at last sexual intercourse or using condoms inconsistently; thinking they were overweight; attempting weight loss; dieting, exercising, vomiting, taking laxatives, or taking diet pills to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight; not having participated in vigorous physical activity or strengthening exercises; and not participating on a college sports team.

Students aged 18-24 years were more likely than students aged greater than or equal to 25 years to report rarely or never wearing a bicycle helmet; riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol; physical fighting; thinking seriously about attempting suicide and making a suicide plan; having not tried to quit cigarette smoking; current smokeless-tobacco use; current episodic heavy drinking; current marijuana use; current other illegal drug use; current combined illegal drug and alcohol use; alcohol and drug use at last sexual intercourse; and eating more than two servings of foods typically high in fat content.

In contrast, students aged greater than or equal to 25 years were more likely than students aged 18-24 years to report drinking alcohol while boating or swimming; ever being forced to have sexual intercourse against their will; having first forced to have sexual intercourse at age less than 13 years or greater than or equal to 19 years; lifetime, lifetime daily, and current frequent cigarette use; lifetime alcohol use; lifetime marijuana use; lifetime cocaine use; lifetime crack or free base use; lifetime injecting-drug use; lifetime other illegal drug use; initiation of cigarette smoking at age less than 13 years; ever having had sexual intercourse; initiation of sexual intercourse at age less than 13 years; having six or more sex partners during their lifetime; current and recent sexual activity; not using contraceptives, birth control pills, or condoms at last sexual intercourse, and using condoms inconsistently; having ever been pregnant or gotten someone pregnant; being overweight; thinking they were overweight; attempting weight loss; dieting to lose weight; not participating in vigorous physical activity and strengthening exercises; not being enrolled in PE; and not participating on a college sports team.

White students were more likely than both black and Hispanic students to report drinking alcohol while boating or swimming; lifetime, lifetime daily, current, and current frequent cigarette use; current smokeless-tobacco use; current tobacco use; lifetime, current, and current frequent alcohol use; current episodic heavy drinking; lifetime marijuana use; lifetime use of other illegal drugs; and lifetime current combined illegal drug and alcohol use. White students were more likely than black students to report riding in a car or other vehicle with a driver who had been drinking; drinking alcohol and driving a car or other vehicle; lifetime cocaine use; lifetime inhalant use; current other illegal-drug use; initiating cigarette smoking at age less than 13 years; failing to use a condom at last sexual intercourse and inconsistent condom use; and not participating in moderate physical activity. White students were more likely than Hispanic students to report rarely or never wearing safety belts when riding in a car or driving a car; having first been forced to have sexual intercourse at age greater than or equal to 19 years; current marijuana use; alcohol or drug use at last sexual intercourse; failing to use a condom at last sexual intercourse and inconsistent condom use; and eating fewer than five servings of fruits and vegetables.

Black students were more likely than both white and Hispanic students to report having ever had sexual intercourse; having had six or more sex partners during their lifetime; having ever been pregnant; being overweight; and eating more than two servings of foods typically high in fat content. Black students were more likely than white students to report attempting suicide; initiating sexual intercourse at age less than 13 years; current sexual activity; and not using birth control pills at last sexual intercourse. Black students were more likely than Hispanic students to eat more than two servings of foods typically high in fat content.

Hispanic students showed no risk behaviors for which they exceeded both white and black students. However, Hispanic students were more likely than white students to report having first been forced to have sexual intercourse at age less than 13 years; initiating sexual intercourse at age less than 13 years; and not using contraceptives or birth control pills at last sexual intercourse. Hispanic students were more likely than black students to report drinking alcohol and driving a car or other vehicle; drinking alcohol while boating or swimming; lifetime cigarette use; current cigarette use; current tobacco use; current alcohol use; current episodic heavy drinking; lifetime cocaine use; lifetime other illegal drug use; and failing to use a condom at last sexual intercourse and inconsistent condom use.

Students from 2-year colleges were more likely than students from 4-year colleges to report ever being forced to have sexual intercourse against their will; having first been forced to have sexual intercourse at age less than 13 years; lifetime daily and current frequent cigarette use; lifetime cocaine use; lifetime crack or free base use; lifetime injecting-drug use; ever having had sexual intercourse; initiating sexual intercourse at age less than 13 years; having had six or more sex partners during their lifetime; current and recent sexual activity; failing to use a contraceptive at last sexual intercourse, not using birth control pills at last sexual intercourse, and inconsistent condom use; having ever been pregnant or gotten someone pregnant; being overweight; thinking they were overweight; dieting or taking diet pills to lose weight or keep from gaining weight; and not participating on a college sports team. In contrast, students from 4-year colleges were more likely than students from 2-year colleges to report not trying to quit cigarette smoking; current alcohol use; current in episodic heavy drinking; current combined illegal-drug and alcohol use; and alcohol and drug use at last sexual intercourse.

Subgroup differences in the percentage of college students receiving information on health topics also were identified. Most importantly, students in 4-year institutions were significantly more likely than students in 2-year institutions to receive information on injury prevention and safety, violence, suicide, pregnancy, STDs, AIDS or HIV infection, tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, dietary behaviors and nutrition, and physical activity and fitness. However, more than half of students in 4-year institutions reported receiving information on only three health topics: STDs, AIDS or HIV infection, and alcohol and other drug use. Thus, both 2-year and 4-year colleges and universities can address priority health-risk behaviors among their students by increasing access to health-related information, education, and services.

As part of CDC's response to reduce health-risk behaviors among college students, CDC provides fiscal and technical support to several national organizations. The NCHRBS provides important baseline data for these organizations and other college leaders, college students, and health officials to use in reducing health-risk behaviors among college students.

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  17. Piccinino LJ. Unintended pregnancy and childbearing. In: Wilcox LS, Marks JS, eds. From data to action: CDC's public health surveillance for women, infants, and children. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, CDC 1994;73-82 (CDC monograph).

  18. Kuczmarski RJ, Flegal KM, Campbell SM, Johnson CL. Increasing prevalence of overweight among US adults. JAMA 1994;272(3):205-11.

  19. Lowry R, Kann L, Collins JL, Kolbe LJ. The effect of socioeconomic status on chronic disease risk behaviors among US adolescents. JAMA 1996;276(10):792-7.

* To be included in the first-stage sampling frame, the institution had to offer at least a 2-year degree program. Technical and trade schools or noncollegiate training programs (e.g., truck driving schools, security guard training, and beautician schools) were excluded from the sampling frame.

** In this report, black refers to black, non-Hispanic students.

*** Further information regarding the formation of the 16 strata is available from the Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, Atlanta, GA.

**** In this report, white refers to white, non-Hispanic students.

***** Fruit, fruit juice, green salad, and cooked vegetables.

****** Hamburgers, hot dogs, or sausage; french fries or potato chips; and cookies, doughnuts, pie, or cake.




Table_1
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TABLE 1. Demographic characteristics of undergraduate college students aged >=18
years, by age group -- United States, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
==========================================================================================
                                                          Age Group (%)
                                                   --------------------------
Category                              Total (%)    18-24 years    >=25 years
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                     --           63.6          36.4

Sex
 Female                                  55.5          52.0          61.8
 Male                                    44.5          48.0          38.2
Race/ethnicity
 White*                                  72.8          70.9          76.1
 Black*                                  10.3          10.5           9.6
 Hispanic                                 7.1           6.9           7.4
 Other                                    9.9          11.7           6.9
Institution type
 2-year                                  45.6          34.6          63.8
 4-year                                  54.4          65.4          36.2
Marital status
 Never married                           69.4          93.2          27.8
 Married                                 22.0           5.8          50.3
 Separated                                1.7           0.4           3.9
 Divorced                                 6.4           0.5          16.7
 Widowed                                  0.5           0.1           1.3
Hours worked per week
    0                                    27.3          30.1          22.5
 1-39                                    49.7          58.1          35.1
 >=40                                    22.9          11.9          42.4
Student status
 Full-time                               68.2          85.2          38.5
 Part-time                               31.8          14.8          61.5
Membership in sorority or fraternity
 Yes                                      9.8          12.4           5.1
 No                                      90.2          87.6          94.9
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Non-Hispanic.
==========================================================================================

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Table_2
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TABLE 2. Percentage of college students who rarely or never used safety belts, motorcycle helmets, or bicycle helmets, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and institution type -- United States, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
=======================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                       Rarely or never used                                     Rarely or never used                                       Rarely or never wore                                    Rarely or never wore
                                        safety belts when                                         safety belts when                                         motorcycle helmets+                                      bicycle helmets&
                                         riding in a car                                           driving a car*
                       ---------------------------------------------------       ---------------------------------------------------          ------------------------------------------------       --------------------------------------------------
Category                    Female               Male            Total               Female                Male           Total                   Female           Male            Total               Female                Male           Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years             8.4 (+/-1.9)@       14.0 (+/-2.8)   11.1 (+/-1.8)        6.4 (+/-1.5)         13.2 (+/-2.9)    9.7 (+/-1.6)           41.1 (+/-8.1)    34.1 (+/-8.4)   37.1 (+/-7.1)        89.8 (+/-2.5)       88.7 (+/-3.0)   89.2 (+/-2.3)
  >=25 years             6.3 (+/-1.7)        10.3 (+/-3.2)   7.8 (+/-1.6)         6.3 (+/-1.7)         10.1 (+/-3.3)    7.8 (+/-1.6)           29.6 (+/-10.3)       NA**        26.8 (+/-9.4)        83.8 (+/-4.4)       81.0 (+/-5.0)   82.6 (+/-3.4)
Race/ethnicity
 White++                 7.4 (+/-1.4)        14.9 (+/-2.7)   10.7 (+/-1.6)        6.9 (+/-1.3)         14.2 (+/-2.7)   10.1 (+/-1.4)           35.2 (+/-8.4)    30.3 (+/-7.9)   32.6 (+/-7.3)        88.0 (+/-3.0)       86.8 (+/-2.8)   87.4 (+/-2.3)
 Black++                13.2 (+/-4.0)         8.9 (+/-3.8)   11.5 (+/-2.9)        7.7 (+/-3.5)          7.8 (+/-4.1)    7.7 (+/-2.5)                  NA             NA               NA             94.6 (+/-4.8)       91.4 (+/-5.2)   92.9 (+/-3.4)
 Hispanic                6.0 (+/-2.6)         8.0 (+/-3.4)   6.9 (+/-2.1)         5.0 (+/-2.5)          5.3 (+/-3.5)    5.1 (+/-2.2)                  NA             NA               NA             88.4 (+/-5.4)       83.2 (+/-6.2)   85.7 (+/-4.2)
Institution type
 2-year                  8.5 (+/-2.1)        14.3 (+/-3.5)   11.1 (+/-2.3)        7.3 (+/-1.9)         13.1 (+/-3.3)    9.8 (+/-2.1)           28.7 (+/-10.6)   25.8 (+/-9.1)   27.8 (+/-9.0)        84.3 (+/-4.5)       85.8 (+/-4.7)   85.1 (+/-4.0)
 4-year                  7.1 (+/-1.6)        12.1 (+/-3.0)    9.4 (+/-1.7)        6.0 (+/-1.6)         11.8 (+/-3.1)    8.7 (+/-1.6)           43.4 (+/-10.2)   35.0 (+/-11.0)  38.9 (+/-9.6)        90.2 (+/-3.0)       86.9 (+/-3.0)   88.5 (+/-2.2)
Total                    7.8 (+/-1.3)        13.0 (+/-2.3)   10.2 (+/-1.4)        6.6 (+/-1.2)         12.3 (+/-2.3)    9.2 (+/-1.3)           37.0 (+/-7.7)    31.1 (+/-7.4)   34.0 (+/-6.7)        87.6 (+/-2.6)       86.5 (+/-2.6)   87.1 (+/-2.1)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  Among the 96.3% of students who had driven.
+  Among the 17.6% of students who had ridden motorsycles during the 12 months preceding the survey.
&  Among the 57.1% of students who had ridden bicycles during the 12 months preceding the survey.
@  95% confidence interval.
** Not available; insufficient sample size.
++ Non-Hispanic.
=======================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_3
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TABLE 3. Percentage of college students who had ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, had driven while drinking alcohol, or had ever
drunk alcohol while boating or swimming, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and institution type -- United States, National College Health Risk
Behavior Survey, 1995
====================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                         Had ridden with a driver                                     Had drunk alcohol and driven                                      Had ever drunk alcohol while
                                           who had been drinking                                         a car or other vehicle*                                            boating or swimming+
                                                 alcohol*
                          --------------------------------------------------------        -----------------------------------------------------           ----------------------------------------------------------
Category                      Female                  Male            Total                  Female                   Male            Total                    Female                    Male            Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years              36.6 (+/-3.4)&          41.4 (+/-3.2)   38.9 (+/-2.7)           23.2 (+/-2.7)           32.7 (+/-3.2)   27.8 (+/-2.4)            23.7 (+/-3.3)             33.2 (+/-3.7)   28.3 (+/-2.5)
  >=25 years               27.8 (+/-4.6)          29.7 (+/-4.7)   28.5 (+/-3.3)           22.2 (+/-4.4)           34.1 (+/-4.4)   26.7 (+/-3.1)            31.4 (+/-4.4)             39.3 (+/-6.1)   34.4 (+/-3.4)
Race/ethnicity
 White@                    36.0 (+/-3.5)          41.2 (+/-4.0)   38.3 (+/-2.7)           26.2 (+/-2.8)           37.4 (+/-3.6)   31.2 (+/-2.4)            29.1 (+/-3.4)             38.8 (+/-3.5)   33.4 (+/-2.4)
 Black@                    24.8 (+/-4.5)          31.6 (+/-7.1)   27.5 (+/-3.5)           11.5 (+/-3.3)           19.7 (+/-5.8)   14.7 (+/-2.8)             7.6 (+/-6.2)                 NA**        11.1 (+/-4.5)
 Hispanic                  32.0 (+/-6.1)          29.6 (+/-6.2)   30.7 (+/-5.0)           19.2 (+/-5.3)          31.8  (+/-6.9)   24.8 (+/-4.8)            21.7 (+/-7.5)             23.0 (+/-7.0)   22.2 (+/-4.9)
Institution type
 2-year                    29.4 (+/-4.2)          29.6 (+/-4.3)   29.6 (+/-3.1)           20.5 (+/-3.6)           30.0 (+/-3.3)   24.6 (+/-3.1)            27.3 (+/-4.9)             34.4 (+/-4.5)   30.7 (+/-3.9)
 4-year                    36.2 (+/-4.2)          43.8 (+/-4.2)   39.7 (+/-3.5)           24.9 (+/-3.3)           35.6 (+/-3.8)   29.8 (+/-2.7)            25.6 (+/-3.8)             35.8 (+/-4.1)   30.3 (+/-2.7)
Total                      33.0 (+/-3.0)          37.7 (+/-3.1)   35.1 (+/-2.4)           22.8 (+/-2.4)           33.2 (+/-2.9)   27.4 (+/-2.1)            26.4 (+/-3.1)             35.2 (+/-3.0)   30.5 (+/-2.3)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  On >=1 times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
+  Among the 76.8% of students who had gone to boating or swimming during the 12 months preceding the survey.
&  95% confidence interval.
@  Non-Hispanic.
** Not available; insufficient sample size.
====================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_4
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TABLE 4. Percentage of college students who had carried a weapon or a gun, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and
institution type -- United States, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
=====================================================================================================================
                                     Carried a weapon*                                  Carried a gun+
                     -----------------------------------------------   ----------------------------------------------
Category                 Female             Male           Total           Female          Male           Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years          3.4 (+/-1.1)&     14.1 (+/-2.3)   8.5 (+/-1.4)    0.7 (+/-0.5)   4.5 (+/-1.4)   2.5 (+/-0.7)
 >=25 years           3.6 (+/-1.2)      13.3 (+/-3.5)   7.3 (+/-1.6)    2.1 (+/-1.0)   6.7 (+/-2.3)   3.8 (+/-1.0)
Race/ethnicity
 White@               3.0 (+/-1.0)      14.8 (+/-2.5)   8.2 (+/-1.5)    1.2 (+/-0.6)   5.3 (+/-1.5)   3.0 (+/-0.8)
 Black@               6.9 (+/-2.8)      13.5 (+/-4.4)   9.5 (+/-2.2)   1.5  (+/-1.2)   6.6 (+/-3.0)   3.5 (+/-1.5)
 Hispanic             2.9 (+/-1.8)      13.9 (+/-3.9)   7.8 (+/-2.3)    1.0 (+/-1.4)   5.6 (+/-4.0)   3.1 (+/-2.3)
Institution type
 2-year               3.4 (+/-1.0)      16.0 (+/-3.1)   8.6 (+/-1.5)    1.5 (+/-0.8)   6.2 (+/-1.9)   3.4 (+/-0.9)
 4-year               3.4 (+/-1.3)      12.2 (+/-2.7)   7.5 (+/-1.7)    1.0 (+/-0.7)   4.3 (+/-1.5)   2.5 (+/-0.8)
Total                 3.4 (+/-0.8)      13.8 (+/-2.0)   8.0 (+/-1.2)    1.2 (+/-0.5)   5.1 (+/-1.2)   2.9 (+/-0.6)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Such as a gun, knife, or club on >=1 of the 30 days preceding the survey, except for job-related reasons.
+ On >=1 of the 30 days preceding the survey, except for job-related reasons.
& 95% confidence interval.
@ Non-Hispanic.
=====================================================================================================================

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TABLE 5. Percentage of college students who had ever been forced to have sexual intercourse and age at which the forced sexual intercourse first
occurred, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and institution type -- United States, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
=======================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                   Ever been forced to have                                      Forced to have sexual                                     Forced to have sexual                                    Forced to have sexual
                                      sexual intercourse                                         intercourse at age <13 intercourse between age intercourse at age>=19
                                                                                                         years                                                  13-18 years                                                 years
                       ----------------------------------------------------        ---------------------------------------------------      --------------------------------------------------       --------------------------------------------------
Category                    Female               Male            Total                Female                    Male           Total           Female                Male           Total               Female                Male           Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years            17.0 (+/-2.2)*       3.6 (+/-1.1)    10.6 (+/-1.3)         2.5 (+/-0.8)         1.4 (+/-0.8)    2.0 (+/-0.5)        12.0 (+/-1.9)        1.2 (+/-0.7)   6.8 (+/-1.2)          2.4 (+/-0.8)        0.7 (+/-0.6)   1.6 (+/-0.5)
 >=25 years             25.5 (+/-3.6)        4.8 (+/-2.0)    17.5 (+/-2.4)         4.5 (+/-1.2)         2.1 (+/-1.3)    3.6 (+/-0.9)         9.9 (+/-2.3)        2.0 (+/-1.2)   6.9 (+/-1.5)         11.0 (+/-2.3)        1.1 (+/-1.1)   7.2 (+/-1.5)
Race/ethnicity
 White+                 19.8 (+/-2.5)        3.3 (+/-1.0)    12.5 (+/-1.5)         2.5 (+/-0.7)         1.1 (+/-0.7)    1.9 (+/-0.5)        11.1 (+/-1.9)        1.2 (+/-0.7)   6.8 (+/-1.1)          5.9 (+/-1.2)        0.8 (+/-0.6)   3.7 (+/-0.7)
 Black+                 24.4 (+/-5.8)        2.8 (+/-2.7)    15.8 (+/-3.6)         5.9 (+/-3.0)         0.2 (+/-0.4)    3.6 (+/-1.8)        12.3 (+/-3.3)        2.6 (+/-2.6)   8.4 (+/-2.3)          5.4 (+/-2.2)             0.0       3.3 (+/-1.3)
 Hispanic               19.4 (+/-6.1)        6.9 (+/-3.8)    13.6 (+/-4.4)         6.0 (+/-3.3)         3.6 (+/-2.4)    4.9 (+/-2.4)         9.3 (+/-3.4)        2.8 (+/-2.2)   6.3 (+/-2.7)          3.3 (+/-1.5)        0.6 (+/-0.9)   2.0 (+/-0.9)
Institution type
 2-year                 23.1 (+/-3.1)        4.9 (+/-1.8)    15.6 (+/-1.9)         4.5 (+/-1.2)         2.2 (+/-0.9)    3.7 (+/-0.9)        11.6 (+/-2.2)        1.2 (+/-0.7)   7.3 (+/-1.3)          6.5 (+/-1.6)        1.1 (+/-0.9)   4.2 (+/-1.0)
 4-year                 18.0 (+/-2.7)        3.2 (+/-1.1)    11.1 (+/-1.6)         2.2 (+/-0.7)         1.1 (+/-1.0)    1.7 (+/-0.5)        10.6 (+/-2.1)        1.6 (+/-0.8)   6.4 (+/-1.3)          5.1 (+/-1.2)        0.6 (+/-0.5)   3.0 (+/-0.7)
Total                   20.4 (+/-2.0)        3.9 (+/-1.0)    13.1 (+/-1.3)         3.3 (+/-0.7)         1.6 (+/-0.7)    2.6 (+/-0.5)        11.1 (+/-1.5)        1.4 (+/-0.6)   6.8 (+/-0.9)          5.8 (+/-1.0)        0.8 (+/-0.5)   3.6 (+/-0.6)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* 95% confidence interval.
+ Non-Hispanic.
=======================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_6
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TABLE 6. Percentage of college students who had been in a physical fight or had been injured in a physical fight, by sex, age group,
race/ethnicity, and institution type -- United States, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
========================================================================================================================================
                                              Participated in a                                         Injured in a physical
                                               physical fight*                                                  fight+
                        ---------------------------------------------------          ---------------------------------------------------
Category                     Female                Male            Total                 Female                Male           Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years             9.0 (+/-1.6)&         17.7 (+/-2.1)   13.2 (+/-1.4)          0.5 (+/-0.3)         1.2 (+/-0.6)   0.9 (+/-0.3)
 >=25 years               3.9 (+/-1.4)          6.3 (+/-2.5)    4.8 (+/-1.4)          0.6 (+/-0.6)         1.6 (+/-1.1)   1.0 (+/-0.7)
Race/ethnicity
 White@                   6.3 (+/-1.4)         12.9 (+/-2.3)    9.2 (+/-1.3)          0.5 (+/-0.4)         0.7 (+/-0.5)   0.6 (+/-0.3)
 Black@                  10.3 (+/-3.7)         18.6 (+/-6.2)   13.5 (+/-3.6)          0.9 (+/-1.0)         2.8 (+/-2.6)   1.7 (+/-1.2)
 Hispanic                 8.5 (+/-2.9)         17.2 (+/-7.6)   12.4 (+/-4.0)          0.6  (+/-0.6)         1.3 (+/-1.3)   0.9 (+/-0.7)
Institution type
 2-year                   7.1 (+/-1.3)         13.8 (+/-3.0)   10.0 (+/-1.5)          1.0 (+/-0.6)         1.4 (+/-0.9)   1.1 (+/-0.5)
 4-year                   6.9 (+/-1.8)         14.5 (+/-2.2)   10.4 (+/-1.6)          0.2 (+/-0.2)         1.2 (+/-0.7)   0.7 (+/-0.3)
Total                     7.0 (+/-1.1)         14.2 (+/-1.8)   10.2 (+/-1.1)          0.6 (+/-0.3)         1.3 (+/-0.6)   0.9 (+/-0.3)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* >=1 times during the 12 months preceding the survey.
+ Students who were injured seriously enough to be treated by a doctor or nurse during the 12 months preceding the survey.
& 95% confidence interval.
@ Non-Hispanic.
========================================================================================================================================

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Table_7
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TABLE 7. Percentage of college students who reported having seriously considered attempting suicide and who reported suicidal behavior, by sex, age
group, race/ethnicity, and institution type -- United States, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
=======================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                      Seriously considered                                                                                         Attempted suicide*+                                  Suicide attempt
                                      attempting suicide*                                                                                                                                             required medical
                                                                                              Made a suicide plan *                                                                                       attention
                      ----------------------------------------------------      -----------------------------------------------     -------------------------------------------------   -----------------------------------------------
Category                  Female                 Male          Total              Female             Male           Total             Female             Male           Total            Female             Male           Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years          11.8 (+/-1.9)&        10.9 (+/-1.9)   11.4 (+/-1.3)       7.5 (+/-1.4)      8.2 (+/-1.5)    7.9 (+/-1.0)      1.6 (+/-0.7)      1.7 (+/-0.8)   1.7 (+/-0.5)      0.5 (+/-0.4)      0.4 (+/-0.4)    0.4 (+/-0.3)
 >=25 years            9.2 (+/-1.7)          6.9 (+/-2.3)    8.3 (+/-1.2)       4.6 (+/-1.3)      4.7 (+/-1.9)    4.6 (+/-0.9)      0.9 (+/-0.7)      1.2 (+/-1.0)   1.0 (+/-0.6)      0.1 (+/-0.2)      0.4 (+/-0.5)    0.2 (+/-0.2)
Race/ethnicity
 White@                10.7 (+/-1.5)         8.2 (+/-1.4)    9.6 (+/-1.0)       6.0 (+/-1.2)      6.6 (+/-1.3)    6.3 (+/-0.8)      1.1 (+/-0.5)      0.9 (+/-0.6)   1.0 (+/-0.4)      0.2 (+/-0.3)      0.3 (+/-0.4)    0.3 (+/-0.2)
 Black@                 9.6  (+/-3.2)       12.6 (+/-5.0)   10.7 (+/-2.8)       6.2 (+/-2.3)      6.6 (+/-4.8)    6.3 (+/-2.4)      2.2 (+/-1.6)      5.3 (+/-4.3)   3.4 (+/-1.9)      1.2 (+/-1.2)           0.0        0.7 (+/-0.7)
 Hispanic               9.7 (+/-3.1)        12.8 (+/-4.9)   11.1 (+/-2.9)       6.1 (+/-2.7)      6.6 (+/-4.1)    6.3 (+/-2.2)      2.1 (+/-1.6)      1.6 (+/-1.9)   1.9 (+/-1.6)      0.2 (+/-0.3)      1.6 (+/-2.1)    0.8 (+/-1.0)
Institution type
 2-year                10.8 (+/-1.8)         9.7 (+/-1.7)   10.4 (+/-1.2)       5.7 (+/-1.3)      6.9 (+/-1.8)    6.2 (+/-1.0)      1.4 (+/-0.8)      2.5 (+/-1.2)   1.8 (+/-0.8)      0.3 (+/-0.2)      1.0 (+/-0.7)    0.6 (+/-0.4)
 4-year                10.8 (+/-1.9)         9.8 (+/-1.9)   10.3 (+/-1.3)       6.8 (+/-1.4)      7.4 (+/-1.6)    7.0 (+/-1.1)      1.3 (+/-0.7)      1.1 (+/-0.7)   1.2 (+/-0.4)      0.4 (+/-0.4)      0.1 (+/-0.2)    0.2 (+/-0.2)
Total                  10.8 (+/-1.3)         9.7 (+/-1.3)   10.3 (+/-0.9)       6.3 (+/-1.0)      7.2 (+/-1.2)    6.7 (+/-0.7)      1.3 (+/-0.5)      1.7 (+/-0.9)   1.5 (+/-0.4)      0.3 (+/-0.2)      0.5 (+/-0.3)    0.4 (+/-0.2)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* During the 12 months preceding the survey.
+ >=1 times.
& 95% confidence interval.
@ Non-Hispanic.
=======================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_8
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TABLE 8. Percentage of college students who smoked cigarettes, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and institution type -- United States, National
College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
========================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

                       Lifetime cigarette use *                   Lifetime daily cigarette use +                     Current cigarette use &                     Smoked >=11 cigarettes per day @              Current frequent cigarette use **
                -------------------------------------------   ---------------------------------------------   --------------------------------------------    ---------------------------------------------  -------------------------------------------
Category            Female        Male           Total           Female           Male           Total          Female           Male           Total           Female           Male           Total          Female          Male          Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years    69.3(+/-2.8)++ 70.8 (+/-3.1)  70.0 (+/-2.2)   23.6 (+/-2.6)    21.5 (+/-2.9)  22.6 (+/-1.9)   28.2 (+/-2.7)   29.4 (+/-3.2)  28.8 (+/-2.3)   22.3 (+/-5.5)   22.9 (+/-5.5)   22.6 (+/-4.0)  14.6 (+/-2.0)  12.2 (+/-2.2)  13.5 (+/-1.4)
 >=25 years     82.6 (+/-2.8)  83.8 (+/-3.9)  83.1 (+/-2.4)   48.0 (+/-4.3)    45.3 (+/-4.8)  47.0 (+/-3.2)   27.6 (+/-4.1)   30.7 (+/-5.0)  28.7 (+/-3.0)   52.9 (+/-8.4)   55.8 (+/-9.0)   54.1 (+/-5.7)  21.8 (+/-3.8)  20.5 (+/-3.8)  21.3 (+/-2.8)
Race/ethnicity
 White&&        78.1 (+/-2.7)  78.4 (+/-2.8)  78.2 (+/-1.9)   38.2 (+/-3.4)    32.0 (+/-3.2)  35.5 (+/-2.5)   31.7 (+/-2.6)   32.0 (+/-3.6)  31.8 (+/-2.2)   36.1 (+/-5.5)   38.8 (+/-5.9)   37.6 (+/-4.4)  20.3 (+/-2.3)  17.2 (+/-2.4)  19.0 (+/-1.7)
 Black&&        63.2 (+/-5.7)  56.7 (+/-8.5)  60.7 (+/-5.2)   14.5 (+/-4.5)    12.1 (+/-4.9)  13.6 (+/-3.6)   12.6 (+/-3.9)   16.8 (+/-6.3)  14.2 (+/-3.6)   26.4 (+/-14.2)   9.0 (+/-8.9)   18.3 (+/-9.4)   8.4 (+/-3.5)   5.0 (+/-3.1)   7.0 (+/-2.6)
 Hispanic       70.4 (+/-4.7)  75.2 (+/-5.3)  72.7 (+/-3.4)   21.5 (+/-4.6)    20.9 (+/-5.4)  21.1 (+/-3.9)   23.7 (+/-5.6)   26.8 (+/-5.9)  25.0 (+/-4.0)   14.1 (+/-8.3)    6.3 (+/-6.1)   10.3 (+/-5.5)   8.3 (+/-3.3)   7.8 (+/-3.3)   8.0 (+/-2.7)
Institution type
 2-year         75.9 (+/-3.1)  78.2 (+/-2.7)  76.9 (+/-2.4)   39.0 (+/-3.9)    36.4 (+/-4.0)  38.0 (+/-3.0)   28.4 (+/-3.3)   31.8 (+/-4.4)  29.9 (+/-2.9)   43.0 (+/-7.9)   41.8 (+/-7.4)   42.7 (+/-6.2)  20.4 (+/-3.0)  19.8 (+/-3.7)  20.2 (+/-2.7)
 4-year         73.5 (+/-3.4)  72.5 (+/-3.6)  73.1 (+/-2.4)   28.4 (+/-4.2)    23.2 (+/-3.6)  25.9 (+/-3.1)   28.1 (+/-3.1)   28.7 (+/-3.6)  28.3 (+/-2.5)   26.4 (+/-5.8)   26.4 (+/-6.6)   26.4 (+/-5.0)  15.4 (+/-2.7)  11.2 (+/-2.2)  13.4 (+/-1.8)
Total           74.6 (+/-2.3)  75.0 (+/-2.3)  74.8 (+/-1.7)   33.4 (+/-2.9)    28.8 (+/-2.7)  31.3 (+/-2.2)   28.2 (+/-2.3)   30.0 (+/-2.8)  29.0 (+/-1.9)   34.3 (+/-5.2)   33.3 (+/-5.0)   34.0 (+/-4.2)  17.7 (+/-2.0)  14.9 (+/-2.0)  16.5 (+/-1.6)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  Ever tried cigarette smoking even one or two puffs.
+  Ever smoked >=1 cigarette every day for 30 days.
&  Smoked cigarettes on >=1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
@  Among those who had smoked cigarettes on >=1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
** Smoked cigarettes on >=20 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
++ 95% confidence interval.
&& Non-Hispanic.
========================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_9
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TABLE 9. Percentage of college students who had tried to quit smoking cigarettes, had used smokeless tobacco, or either had smoked cigarettes or used
smokeless tobacco, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and institution type -- United States, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
===============================================================================================================================================================================================
                                             Tried to quit                                            Current smokeless-                                 Current tobacco use&
                                            cigarette smoking*                                            tobacco use+
                         ------------------------------------------------------        -------------------------------------------------    ---------------------------------------------------
Category                      Female                 Male            Total               Female               Male           Total             Female              Male            Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years              62.7 (+/-5.3)@        54.6 (+/-6.8)    58.7 (+/-4.3)        0.5 (+/-0.4)       13.6 (+/-2.9)   6.8 (+/-1.4)      29.1 (+/-2.9)       36.7 (+/-3.5)   32.8 (+/-2.4)
 >=25 years               85.0 (+/-5.6)         83.5 (+/-6.9)    84.4 (+/-4.2)            0.0             7.8 (+/-2.3)   3.0 (+/-0.9)      27.9 (+/-4.2)       36.9 (+/-4.8)   31.2 (+/-3.0)
Race/ethnicity
 White**                  72.5 (+/-4.4)         64.5 (+/-6.4)    68.9 (+/-3.9)        0.4 (+/-0.4)       14.9 (+/-2.8)   6.8 (+/-1.3)      32.4 (+/-2.7)       40.6 (+/-3.7)   36.0 (+/-2.2)
 Black**                        NA++                  NA              NA                   0.0            1.8 (+/-2.0)   0.7 (+/-0.8)      13.0 (+/-3.9)       18.2 (+/-6.0)   15.1 (+/-3.5)
 Hispanic                       NA                    NA        64.0 (+/-10.1)        0.3 (+/-0.5)        2.2 (+/-1.8)   1.1 (+/-0.9)      24.0 (+/-5.6)       28.5 (+/-6.0)   26.0 (+/-4.2)
Institution type
 2-year                   78.1 (+/-5.2)         73.2 (+/-6.8)    76.0 (+/-3.5)        0.3 (+/-0.4)        8.8 (+/-2.5)   3.9 (+/-1.1)      29.0 (+/-3.4)       37.9 (+/-4.2)   32.8 (+/-2.8)
 4-year                   65.2 (+/-6.2)         55.2 (+/-8.7)    60.5 (+/-5.7)        0.4 (+/-0.3)       13.8 (+/-3.1)   6.6 (+/-1.6)      28.7 (+/-3.3)       36.0 (+/-4.0)   32.0 (+/-2.7)
Total                     71.3 (+/-4.2)         63.2 (+/-5.8)    67.7 (+/-3.6)        0.3 (+/-0.3)       11.7 (+/-2.2)   5.4 (+/-1.0)      28.9 (+/-2.4)       36.8 (+/-2.9)   32.4 (+/-1.9)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  Among students who had smoked cigarattes on >=1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
+  Used chewing tobacco or snuff on >=1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
&  Students who either had smoked cigarettes or had used smokeless tobacco on >=1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
@  95% confidence interval.
** Non-Hispanic.
** Not available; insufficient sample size.
===============================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_10
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TABLE 10. Percentage of college students who had drunk alcohol, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and institution type -- United States, National
College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
============================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                         Lifetime alcohol use*                                 Current alcohol use+                                   Current frequent                                   Current episodic
                                                                                                                                                       alcohol use&                                      heavy drinking@
                        ----------------------------------------------------     --------------------------------------------------     ----------------------------------------------    --------------------------------------------------
Category                     Female                Male            Total              Female              Male           Total             Female             Male           Total            Female              Male           Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years             86.8 (+/-2.2)         88.9 (+/-2.2)   87.8 (+/-1.7)     67.0 (+/-3.2)++      73.2 (+/-3.2)   70.0 (+/-2.6)     1.6 (+/-0.7)      5.4 (+/-1.3)   3.4 (+/-0.7)      34.8 (+/-3.3)     48.7 (+/-3.9)   41.5 (+/-3.0)
 >=25 years              92.2 (+/-2.0)         95.8 (+/-1.8)   93.6 (+/-1.5)      60.8 (+/-4.2)       71.8 (+/-4.5)   65.0 (+/-3.2)     3.1  (+/-1.2)     9.2 (+/-2.9)   5.4 (+/-1.5)      15.7 (+/-3.1)     32.2 (+/-4.4)   22.0 (+/-2.7)
Race/ethnicity
 White++                 92.2 (+/-1.8)         93.2 (+/-1.6)   92.6 (+/-1.5)      69.7 (+/-3.0)       75.7 (+/-3.2)   72.4 (+/-2.5)     2.5 (+/-0.8)      7.6 (+/-1.7)   4.7 (+/-0.9)      31.6 (+/-3.3)     49.4 (+/-4.0)   39.5 (+/-3.2)
 Black++                 81.0 (+/-3.6)         85.4 (+/-5.0)   82.7 (+/-2.8)      49.0 (+/-5.1)       62.6 (+/-7.5)   54.2 (+/-4.5)     1.1 (+/-1.6)      2.4 (+/-2.6)   1.6 (+/-1.4)       6.1 (+/-2.3)     22.8 (+/-7.5)   12.5 (+/-3.0)
 Hispanic                86.7 (+/-3.7)         88.4 (+/-4.5)   87.5 (+/-2.8)      58.0 (+/-8.2)       71.2 (+/-6.1)   63.6 (+/-4.7)     1.1 (+/-1.0)      3.0 (+/-2.3)   2.0 (+/-1.3)      22.6 (+/-5.2)     39.9 (+/-6.5)   30.2 (+/-3.9)
Institution type
 2-year                  87.2 (+/-2.1)         91.6 (+/-2.2)   89.0 (+/-1.8)      59.4 (+/-4.7)       67.9 (+/-3.5)   63.1 (+/-3.3)     2.5 (+/-0.9)      6.6 (+/-2.2)   4.2 (+/-1.2)      20.6 (+/-3.4)     34.8 (+/-4.1)   26.8 (+/-2.9)
 4-year                  90.5 (+/-2.4)         90.9 (+/-2.1)   90.6 (+/-1.9)      69.0 (+/-3.6)       76.6 (+/-3.7)   72.5 (+/-3.1)     1.9 (+/-0.8)      6.6 (+/-1.5)   4.1 (+/-0.8)      32.8 (+/-4.2)     50.7 (+/-4.6)   41.0 (+/-4.0)
Total                    88.9 (+/-1.6)         91.2 (+/-1.5)   89.9 (+/-1.3)      64.5 (+/-2.9)       72.9 (+/-2.7)   68.2 (+/-2.2)     2.2 (+/-0.6)      6.6 (+/-1.3)   4.2 (+/-0.7)      27.0 (+/-2.6)     43.8 (+/-3.4)   34.5 (+/-2.5)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  Ever had >=1 drink of alcohol.
+  Had drunk alcohol on >=1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
&  Had drunk alcohol on >=20 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
@  Had drunk >=5 drinks of alcohol on at least one occasion on >=1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
** 95% confidence interval.
+= Non-Hispanic.
============================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_11
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TABLE 11. Percentage of college students who had used marijuana, cocaine, crack, or free base, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and institution type
-- United States, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
========================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

                          Lifetime marijuana use *                      Current marijuana use +                         Lifetime cocaine use &                          Current cocaine use @                    Lifetime crack or free base use **
                   -------------------------------------------   ------------------------------------------     ------------------------------------------    -------------------------------------------   --------------------------------------------
Category              Female           Male           Total          Female           Male           Total         Female          Male            Total          Female          Male           Total          Female          Male            Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
18-24 years       40.8(+/-3.2)++  44.4 (+/-3.7)  42.5 (+/-2.5)  14.7 (+/-2.3)   20.3 (+/-2.8)  17.3 (+/-1.9)    6.5 (+/-1.6)   6.7 (+/-1.6)    6.6 (+/-1.1)   0.6 (+/-0.5)   1.3 (+/-0.7)   0.9 (+/-0.4)    1.3 (+/-0.6)   1.9 (+/-0.9)    1.6 (+/-0.6)
  >=25 years      58.1 (+/-4.7)   62.3 (+/-4.6)  59.6 (+/-3.3)   6.9 (+/-2.1)   10.6 (+/-2.9)   8.3 (+/-1.6)   25.5 (+/-3.9)  32.4 (+/-4.7)   28.1 (+/-2.7)   0.3 (+/-0.3)   1.0 (+/-0.8)   0.6 (+/-0.4)    6.9 (+/-2.1)  10.8 (+/-2.9)    8.4 (+/-1.6)
Race/ethnicity
 White&&          51.6 (+/-3.8)   53.7 (+/-4.0)  52.5 (+/-3.0)  13.0 (+/-2.1)   18.7 (+/-2.8)  15.5 (+/-1.8)   15.7 (+/-2.6)  16.4 (+/-2.7)   16.0 (+/-2.0)   0.5 (+/-0.3)   1.3 (+/-0.7)   0.8 (+/-0.4)    3.4 (+/-1.2)   4.9 (+/-1.4)    4.0 (+/-0.9)
 Black&&          36.2 (+/-6.0)   43.8 (+/-7.8)  39.1 (+/-4.6)   8.8 (+/-2.9)   16.5 (+/-6.2)  11.8 (+/-2.9)    7.9 (+/-3.1)   8.0 (+/-4.5)    7.9 (+/-2.7)   0.2 (+/-0.4)   0.6 (+/-0.9)   0.4 (+/-0.4)    3.5 (+/-2.8)   4.3 (+/-2.8)    3.8 (+/-2.2)
 Hispanic         43.8 (+/-5.7)   42.4 (+/-6.3)  43.0 (+/-4.8)   6.9 (+/-3.0)    7.8 (+/-3.8)   7.3 (+/-2.4)   15.7 (+/-4.6)  16.4 (+/-4.0)   15.9 (+/-3.0)   0.8 (+/-0.9)   1.8 (+/-1.6)   1.3 (+/-0.9)    4.3 (+/-2.6)   4.9 (+/-2.9)    4.6 (+/-1.8)
Institution type
 2-year           49.2 (+/-4.4)   53.3 (+/-4.1)  50.9 (+/-2.9)  10.6 (+/-2.2)   14.3 (+/-3.0)  12.2 (+/-1.6)   18.6 (+/-2.6)  20.9 (+/-2.9)   19.6 (+/-1.7)   0.4 (+/-0.3)   1.6 (+/-0.9)   0.8 (+/-0.4)    5.1 (+/-1.6)   8.2 (+/-2.1)    6.4 (+/-1.2)
 4-year           46.4 (+/-4.2)   47.4 (+/-4.5)  46.8 (+/-3.4)  12.4 (+/-2.7)   19.3 (+/-3.1)  15.6 (+/-2.3)   10.1 (+/-3.1)  10.2 (+/-2.8)   10.1 (+/-2.3)   0.6 (+/-0.5)   0.9 (+/-0.7)   0.7 (+/-0.4)    2.0 (+/-1.2)   2.0 (+/-1.1)    2.0 (+/-0.8)
Total             47.7 (+/-3.0)   50.0 (+/-3.1)  48.7 (+/-2.3)  11.6 (+/-1.7)   17.1 (+/-2.2)  14.0 (+/-1.4)   14.1 (+/-2.1)  14.8 (+/-2.0)   14.4 (+/-1.5)   0.5 (+/-0.3)   1.2 (+/-0.5)   0.8 (+/-0.3)    3.5 (+/-1.0)   4.7 (+/-1.1)    4.0 (+/-0.7)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  Ever used marijuana.
+  Used marijuana >=1 times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
&  Ever tried any form of cocaine, including powder, crack, or free base.
@  Used cocained >=1 times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
** Ever used crack or free base.
++ 95% confidence interval.
&& Non-Hispanic.
========================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_12
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TABLE 12. Percentage of college students who used inhalants, illegal steroids, or who reported injecting-drug use, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity,
and institution type -- United States, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
===========================================================================================================================================================================
                                      Lifetime inhalant                                  Lifetime                                    Lifetime injecting
                                            use*                                          illegal                                         drug use &
                                                                                                                                         steroid use +
                      -----------------------------------------------    -------------------------------------------    ---------------------------------------------------
Category                  Female             Male           Total           Female          Male           Total            Female             Male           Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years          7.7 (+/-1.4)@      11.7 (+/-2.0)   9.6 (+/-1.2)    0.3 (+/-0.3)   2.0 (+/-1.0)   1.1 (+/-0.5)      0.2 (+/-0.2)      1.3 (+/-0.9)    0.7 (+/-0.5)
 >=25 years            5.9 (+/-1.7)      11.9 (+/-2.7)   8.2 (+/-1.4)    0.7 (+/-0.5)   3.7 (+/-2.0)   1.9 (+/-0.8)      2.9 (+/-1.3)      4.0 (+/-1.7)    3.3 (+/-1.1)
Race/ethnicity
 White**               7.3 (+/-1.5)      12.5 (+/-2.2)   9.6 (+/-1.2)    0.5 (+/-0.4)   2.1 (+/-1.1)   1.2 (+/-0.5)      1.5 (+/-0.8)      2.1 (+/-1.0)    1.7 (+/-0.6)
 Black**               4.2 (+/-1.8)       7.8 (+/-4.1)   5.6 (+/-1.9)    0.4 (+/-0.5)   3.5 (+/-3.0)   1.6 (+/-1.2)      1.3 (+/-1.7)      2.2 (+/-2.5)    1.7 (+/-1.6)
 Hispanic              8.1 (+/-3.2)       7.3 (+/-2.9)   7.7 (+/-2.3)    0.7 (+/-1.2)   2.6 (+/-2.5)   1.5 (+/-1.2)      0.6 (+/-0.8)      2.3 (+/-2.4)    1.4 (+/-1.2)
Institution type
 2-year                7.5 (+/-1.6)      10.9 (+/-2.1)   9.0 (+/-1.2)    0.7 (+/-0.5)   3.0 (+/-1.1)   1.8 (+/-0.6)      2.2 (+/-1.1)      3.4 (+/-1.4)    2.8 (+/-0.9)
 4-year                6.6 (+/-1.5)      12.3 (+/-2.4)   9.2 (+/-1.3)    0.2 (+/-0.3)   2.2 (+/-1.4)   1.1 (+/-0.6)      0.5 (+/-0.4)      1.1 (+/-1.0)    0.8 (+/-0.5)
Total                  7.0 (+/-1.1)      11.7 (+/-1.6)   9.1 (+/-0.9)    0.4 (+/-0.3)   2.6 (+/-0.9)   1.4 (+/-0.4)      1.3 (+/-0.6)      2.1 (+/-0.8)    1.7 (+/-0.5)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  Ever used inhalants, including sniffing glue, breathing the contents of aerosol spray cans, or inhaling any paints or sprays to get high.
+  Ever used illegal steroids.
&  Ever injected illegal drugs. Respondents were classified as injecting-drug users only if they a) reported injecting-drug use not prescribed by a
   physician and b) answered "one or more" to any of these questions: "During your life, how many times have you used any form of cocaine including powder, crack, or
   freebase?"; "During your life, how many times have you taken steroid pills or shots without a doctor's prescription?"; or "During your life, how many times have you
   used any other type of illegal drug, such as LSD, PCP, ecstacy, mushrooms, speed, ice or heroin?"
@  95% confidence interval.
** Non-Hispanic.
===========================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_13
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TABLE 13. Percentage of college students who had used other illegal drugs or illegal drugs in combination with alcohol, by sex, age group,
race/ethnicity and institution type -- United States, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
===================================================================================================================================================================================
                                         Lifetime other                                        Current other                                    Current combined
                                        illegal drug use*                                     illegal drug use+                                  illegal drug and
                                                                                                                                                   alcohol use&
                      -------------------------------------------------     -----------------------------------------------    ----------------------------------------------------
Category                   Female              Male           Total             Female             Male           Total            Female             Male           Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years           14.7 (+/-2.1)@     17.6 (+/-2.4)   16.1 (+/-1.7)      2.2 (+/-0.9)      4.6 (+/-1.3)   3.4 (+/-0.8)      8.9 (+/-1.8)     14.5 (+/-2.4)   11.6 (+/-1.6)
 >=25 years            24.9 (+/-3.0)      34.3 (+/-4.4)   28.5 (+/-2.4)      0.6 (+/-0.5)      1.4 (+/-1.1)   0.9 (+/-0.5)      4.0 (+/-1.3)      8.1 (+/-2.3)    5.5 (+/-1.2)
Race/ethnicity
 White**               22.2 (+/-2.6)      26.5 (+/-3.1)   24.0 (+/-2.1)      1.8 (+/-0.7)      3.7 (+/-1.1)   2.6 (+/-0.6)      8.3 (+/-1.6)     13.7 (+/-2.3)   10.7 (+/-1.4)
 Black**                4.5 (+/-2.6)       8.1 (+/-3.9)    5.9 (+/-2.3)      0.1 (+/-0.2)      1.8 (+/-2.3)   0.8 (+/-0.9)      1.9 (+/-1.3)      8.6 (+/-4.7)    4.6 (+/-1.9)
 Hispanic              14.1 (+/-4.2)      15.6 (+/-4.7)   14.7 (+/-3.1)      2.1 (+/-1.6)      2.5 (+/-2.0)   2.3 (+/-1.4)      4.8 (+/-2.8)      8.5 (+/-3.6)    6.4 (+/-2.3)
Institution type
 2-year                20.0 (+/-2.3)      26.8 (+/-3.3)   22.8 (+/-2.0)      1.2 (+/-0.8)      2.7 (+/-1.2)   1.8 (+/-0.7)      5.8 (+/-1.4)     10.3 (+/-2.2)    7.7 (+/-1.1)
 4-year                17.8 (+/-3.1)      19.6 (+/-3.1)   18.6 (+/-2.4)      1.9 (+/-0.8)      4.2 (+/-1.3)   3.0 (+/-0.7)      7.8 (+/-2.1)     14.3 (+/-2.7)   10.8 (+/-1.9)
Total                  18.8 (+/-1.9)      22.7 (+/-2.3)   20.5 (+/-1.6)      1.6 (+/-0.6)      3.5 (+/-0.9)   2.4 (+/-0.5)      6.8 (+/-1.3)     12.6 (+/-1.8)    9.4 (+/-1.1)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  Ever used any other type of illegal drug (e.g., LSD, PCP, ecstasy, mushrooms {i.e., hallucinogenic}, speed, ice, or heroin).
+  Used any other type of illegal drug (e.g., LSD, PCP, ecstasy, mushrooms {i.e., hallucinogenic}, spide, ice, or heroin) on >=1 times during the 30
   days preceding the survey.
&  95% confidence interval.
** Non-Hispanic.
===================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_14
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TABLE 14. Percentage of college students who reported initiating drug-related behaviors at age <13 years, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and
institution type -- United States, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
===========================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                       Smoked a whole                                     Tried drinking                                     Tried marijuana                                  Tried cocaine
                                      cigarette at age                                        alcohol                                        at age <13 years                                  at age <13
                                         <13 years                                      at age <13 years*                                                                                         years+
                     -----------------------------------------------    ------------------------------------------------    ---------------------------------------------    ----------------------------------------------
Category                 Female             Male           Total            Female             Male            Total           Female            Male           Total           Female           Male           Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years           9.6 (+/-1.6)&   12.2 (+/-2.3)   10.8 (+/-1.5)     9.3 (+/-1.6)      17.4 (+/-2.2)   13.2 (+/-1.4)    2.0 (+/-0.7)     3.5 (+/-1.1)   2.7 (+/-0.7)     0.1 (+/-0.1)    0.1 (+/-0.2)   0.1 (+/-0.1)
 >=25 years           13.1 (+/-2.4)    18.9 (+/-2.9)   15.3 (+/-1.8)     6.8 (+/-1.7)      16.4 (+/-3.3)   10.6 (+/-1.7)    2.5 (+/-1.1)     4.8 (+/-1.9)   3.4 (+/-0.9)     0.1 (+/-0.1)    0.3 (+/-0.4)   0.2 (+/-0.2)
Race/ethnicity
 White@               11.9 (+/-1.9)    15.2 (+/-2.5)   13.4 (+/-1.5)     8.2 (+/-1.6)      16.7 (+/-2.4)   12.0 (+/-1.5)    1.9 (+/-0.6)     3.4 (+/-1.2)   2.6 (+/-0.6)     0.1 (+/-0.1)    0.1 (+/-0.2)   0.1 (+/-0.1)
 Black@                9.6 (+/-3.2)     6.1 (+/-3.6)    8.2 (+/-2.3)     9.4 (+/-2.8)      15.0 (+/-5.5)   11.6 (+/-2.9)    3.4 (+/-2.0)     4.9 (+/-3.4)   4.0 (+/-1.7)     0.0 (+/-0.0)    0.0 (+/-0.0)   0.0 (+/-0.0)
 Hispanic              8.4 (+/-3.8)    13.8 (+/-4.1)   10.8 (+/-2.6)     11.0 (+/-3.8)     19.8 (+/-5.1)   15.4 (+/-3.2)    2.5 (+/-2.0)     4.1 (+/-2.2)   3.2 (+/-1.3)     0.4 (+/-0.9)    0.3 (+/-0.6)   0.4 (+/-0.5)
Institution type
 2-year               11.9 (+/-2.3)    16.2 (+/-2.8)   13.7 (+/-1.6)     8.1 (+/-1.9)      18.4 (+/-2.8)   12.4 (+/-1.8)    2.3 (+/-0.9)     4.7 (+/-1.3)   3.4 (+/-0.8)     0.1 (+/-0.1)    0.3 (+/-0.4)   0.2 (+/-0.2)
 4-year               10.3 (+/-2.0)    13.1 (+/-2.7)   11.7 (+/-1.8)     8.5 (+/-1.6)      16.1 (+/-2.6)   12.1 (+/-1.5)    2.0 (+/-0.7)     3.2 (+/-1.3)   2.6 (+/-0.7)     0.1 (+/-0.2)    0.0 (+/-0.0)   0.1 (+/-0.1)
Total                 11.0 (+/-1.5)    14.4 (+/-2.0)   12.6 (+/-1.2)     8.3 (+/-1.2)      17.1 (+/-1.9)   12.2 (+/-1.2)    2.2 (+/-0.6)     3.8 (+/-0.9)   2.9 (+/-0.5)     0.1 (+/-0.1)    0.1 (+/-0.2)   0.1 (+/-0.1)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Other than a few sips.
+ Including powder, crack, or free base forms of cocaine.
& 95% confidence interval.
@ Non-Hispanic.
===========================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_15
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TABLE 15. Percentage of college students who reported engaging in sexual behaviors, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and institution type -- United
States, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
========================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                   Ever had                                      Had sexual                                    Six or more                                      Current                                     Recent sexual
                                    sexual                                      intercourse                                   sex partners                                      sexual                                        activity+
                                  intercourse                                     at age <13                                      during                                        activity*
                                                                                   years                                        lifetime
                  --------------------------------------------  -------------------------------------------   --------------------------------------------   --------------------------------------------  ---------------------------------------------
Category             Female           Male          Total         Female          Male            Total         Female           Male           Total          Female           Male           Total         Female          Male           Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years      81.0 (+/-2.2)& 77.8 (+/-2.6)  79.5 (+/-1.7)  0.9 (+/-0.5)   2.8 (+/-0.9)    1.8 (+/-0.5)   23.9 (+/-2.4)   27.8 (+/-3.3)  25.7 (+/-2.1)   66.8 (+/-2.8)  56.8 (+/-3.1)   62.1 (+/-2.3)  60.4 (+/-3.2)  49.8 (+/-3.3)  55.4 (+/-2.5)
 >=25 years       98.2 (+/-0.9)  97.1 (+/-2.0)  97.8 (+/-1.0)  2.4 (+/-0.9)   6.3 (+/-2.1)    3.9 (+/-1.0)   44.0 (+/-4.0)   58.8 (+/-5.3)  49.6 (+/-3.4)   78.0 (+/-3.2)  79.8 (+/-3.6)   78.7 (+/-2.6)  74.2 (+/-3.1)  74.6 (+/-4.0)  74.4 (+/-2.7)
Race/ethnicity
 White@           88.7 (+/-1.8)  84.2 (+/-2.6)  86.7 (+/-1.7)  1.2 (+/-0.6)   2.4 (+/-1.0)    1.7 (+/-0.5)   32.7 (+/-3.0)   37.4 (+/-4.1)  34.8 (+/-2.6)   72.2 (+/-2.9)  64.2 (+/-2.9)   68.7 (+/-2.2)  67.5 (+/-3.0)  57.1 (+/-3.2)  63.0 (+/-2.4)
 Black@           91.7 (+/-3.4)  94.5 (+/-4.1)  92.8 (+/-2.1)  1.6 (+/-1.3)   13.5 (+/-6.6)   6.3 (+/-2.7)   37.1 (+/-5.6)   60.2 (+/-8.1)  46.3 (+/-4.7)   74.3 (+/-4.6)  75.6 (+/-7.1)   74.8 (+/-3.5)  67.8 (+/-4.5)  68.6 (+/-6.8   68.1 (+/-3.6)
 Hispanic         83.6 (+/-4.0)  87.0 (+/-4.7)  85.2 (+/-3.0)  3.5 (+/-2.1)   6.8 (+/-3.6)    5.0 (+/-1.7)   22.3 (+/-5.1)   41.1 (+/-6.5)  30.6 (+/-4.3)   70.1 (+/-6.5)  69.4 (+/-7.4)   70.0 (+/-4.5)  63.8 (+/-6.9)  65.2 (+/-7.2)  64.6 (+/-4.2)
Institution type
 2-year           90.9 (+/-1.9)  88.5 (+/-2.7)  89.9 (+/-1.7)  2.4 (+/-0.9)   6.1 (+/-1.5)    4.1 (+/-0.8)   36.7 (+/-3.7)   43.4 (+/-4.9)  39.7 (+/-3.2)   73.4 (+/-3.2)  68.3 (+/-3.5)   71.4 (+/-2.3)  68.7 (+/-3.0)  62.1 (+/-3.9)  66.2 (+/-2.3)
 4-year           85.1 (+/-2.6)  80.6 (+/-3.1)  82.9 (+/-2.3)  0.8 (+/-0.5)   2.8 (+/-1.2)    1.7 (+/-0.6)   27.5 (+/-3.7)   33.5 (+/-4.4)  30.2 (+/-3.1)   69.6 (+/-3.5)  61.0 (+/-3.7)   65.6 (+/-2.9)  63.8 (+/-3.8)  54.1 (+/-4.1)  59.3 (+/-3.3)
Total             87.8 (+/-1.6)  84.0 (+/-2.1)  86.1 (+/-1.5)  1.5 (+/-0.5)   4.2 (+/-0.9)    2.8 (+/-0.5)   31.8 (+/-2.6)   37.8 (+/-3.3)  34.5 (+/-2.2)   71.4 (+/-2.3)  64.1 (+/-2.6)   68.2 (+/-1.8)  66.1 (+/-2.4)  57.5 (+/-2.8)  62.4 (+/-2.1)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Had sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey.
+ Had sexual intercourse during the 30 days preceding the survey.
& 95% confidence interval.
@ Non-Hispanic.
========================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_16
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TABLE 16. Percentage of college students who reported contraceptive use, birth control pill use, and condom use, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity,
and institution type -- United States, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
=====================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                     Contraceptive use                                    Birth control                                       Condom use                                        Consistent condom
                                       during last                                      pill use before                                      during last                                               use&
                                          sexual                                           last sexual                                          sexual
                                       intercourse*+                                      intercourse*                                       intercourse*
                      ---------------------------------------------     -------------------------------------------------   -----------------------------------------------    ------------------------------------------------------
Category                 Female             Male           Total            Female             Male            Total           Female            Male            Total            Female              Male             Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years          88.8  (+/-2.1)@  82.3 (+/-3.0)   86.0 (+/-1.8)     48.1 (+/-3.8)     38.6 (+/-4.4)   43.9 (+/-3.0)    33.6 (+/-3.1)    43.2 (+/-4.0)   37.7 (+/-2.5)     34.2 (+/-3.5)      39.7 (+/-4.2)    36.5 (+/-2.6)
 >=25 years           68.7 (+/-2.6)    74.9 (+/-4.9)   71.1 (+/-2.5)     19.0 (+/-2.6)     25.2 (+/-6.0)   21.4 (+/-2.7)    15.9 (+/-2.8)    22.9 (+/-4.6)   18.5 (+/-2.9)     14.2 (+/-2.8)      21.9 (+/-4.9)    17.1 (+/-2.9)
Race/ethnicity
 White**              81.6 (+/-2.4)    80.2 (+/-3.3)   81.0 (+/-2.0)     38.5 (+/-2.9)     36.3 (+/-5.1)   37.6 (+/-2.8)    23.9 (+/-2.7)    33.0 (+/-4.4)   27.5 (+/-2.7)     22.9 (+/-2.9)      28.8 (+/-4.0)   25.2  (+/-2.6)
 Black**              77.6 (+/-4.5)    82.1 (+/-6.5)   79.4 (+/-4.2)     27.3 (+/-6.3)     23.0 (+/-7.8)   25.6 (+/-4.3)    36.7 (+/-5.7)    52.3 (+/-7.4)   42.8 (+/-4.5)     35.6 (+/-6.4)      53.8 (+/-8.6)    42.8 (+/-4.5)
 Hispanic             70.7 (+/-6.1)    79.2 (+/-8.1)   74.7 (+/-4.1)     26.5 (+/-6.1)     32.0 (+/-9.9)   28.8 (+/-5.6)    25.3 (+/-6.3)    36.1 (+/-8.3)   29.8 (+/-5.2)     28.1 (+/-6.3)     37.1 (+/-10.4)    32.0 (+/-5.3)
Institution type
 2-year               74.9 (+/-2.5)    74.6 (+/-4.3)   74.8 (+/-2.6)     27.9 (+/-3.1)     27.1 (+/-4.6)   27.6 (+/-2.7)    21.9 (+/-3.4)    33.0 (+/-5.5)   26.2 (+/-3.4)     21.1 (+/-3.5)      28.8 (+/-5.4)    23.9 (+/-3.3)
 4-year               85.0 (+/-3.4)    83.3 (+/-3.2)   84.3 (+/-2.4)     42.8 (+/-4.1)     37.9 (+/-5.5)   40.6 (+/-3.3)    29.4 (+/-3.7)    37.0 (+/-4.2)   32.7 (+/-3.1)     29.0 (+/-3.8)      35.4 (+/-4.2)    31.7 (+/-2.9)
Total                 80.1 (+/-2.1)    79.3 (+/-2.7)   79.8 (+/-1.8)     35.6 (+/-2.6)     33.0 (+/-3.7)   34.5 (+/-2.2)    25.8 (+/-2.4)    35.2 (+/-3.4)   29.6 (+/-2.2)     25.1 (+/-2.5)      32.4 (+/-3.4)    27.9 (+/-2.1)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  Among the 68.2% of students who had sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey.
+  Birth control pills, condoms, withdrawal, or some other method.
&  Among the 62.4% of students who had sexual intercourse during the 30 days preceding the survey, almost or most of the time used condoms.
@  95% confidence interval.
** Non-Hispanic.
=====================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_17
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TABLE 17. Percentage of college students who reported using alcohol or drugs during last sexual intercourse and who had been
pregnant or gotten someone pregnant, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and institution type -- United States, National
College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
==============================================================================================================================
                                    Alcohol or drug                                      Been pregnant or
                                    use during last                                        got someone
                                         sexual                                              pregnant
                                      intercourse*
                     -----------------------------------------------    ------------------------------------------------------
Category                 Female             Male           Total            Female             Male            Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years          14.0 (+/-2.3)+   26.6 (+/-3.7)   19.3 (+/-2.1)     18.5 (+/-2.2)     11.4 (+/-2.5)   15.1 (+/-1.8)
 >=25 years           11.7 (+/-2.7)    15.3 (+/-4.8)   13.1 (+/-2.4)     78.2 (+/-2.8)     55.9 (+/-5.0)   69.7 (+/-2.8)
Race/ethnicity
 White&               13.7 (+/-2.0)    23.3 (+/-3.4)   17.5 (+/-1.8)     42.9 (+/-3.7)     21.9 (+/-3.4)   35.5 (+/-3.5)
 Black&               11.2 (+/-5.8)    18.7 (+/-7.6)   14.1 (+/-4.2)     54.3 (+/-6.2)     29.4 (+/-3.7)   45.6 (+/-5.4)
 H ispanic            12.1 (+/-4.6)    13.5 (+/-4.8)   12.6 (+/-2.9)     35.0 (+/-4.9)     35.2 (+/-3.4)   32.0 (+/-4.0)
Institution type
 2-year               11.1 (+/-2.1)    16.8 (+/-3.2)   13.6 (+/-1.9)     56.1 (+/-3.2)     37.2 (+/-5.1)   48.3 (+/-3.3)
 4-year               14.4 (+/-2.4)    26.1 (+/-4.2)   19.4 (+/-2.2)     30.9 (+/-5.8)     16.4 (+/-3.9)   24.2 (+/-4.6)
Total                 12.8 (+/-1.6)    21.8 (+/-2.8)   16.6 (+/-1.5)     42.8 (+/-3.2)     25.3 (+/-3.4)   35.1 (+/-2.9)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Among the 62.4% of students who had sexual intercourse during the 30 days preceding the survey.
+ 95% confidence interval.
& Non-Hispanic.
==============================================================================================================================

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Table_18
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TABLE 18. Percentage of college students who ate five or more servings of fruits and vegetables*+ and percentage who ate no
more than two servings of foods typically high in fat content,*& by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and institution type --
United States, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
================================================================================================================================
                                     Ate >=5 servings                                    Ate <=2 servings
                                      of fruits and                                          of foods
                                        vegetables                                       typically high in
                                                                                             fat content
                     -------------------------------------------------    ------------------------------------------------------
Category                  Female             Male            Total            Female             Male           Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years          23.2 (+/-2.5)@     27.0 (+/-3.3)   25.0 (+/-2.2)     84.6 (+/-1.8)    65.9 (+/-3.0)   75.6 (+/-1.7)
 >=25 years           27.6 (+/-3.5)      30.0 (+/-4.7)   28.5 (+/-3.2)     85.5 (+/-2.6)    77.1 (+/-4.4)   82.3 (+/-2.7)
Race/ethnicity
 White**              23.6 (+/-2.5)      25.8 (+/-3.3)   24.6 (+/-2.3)     86.4 (+/-1.8)    69.9 (+/-2.9)   79.1 (+/-1.9)
 Black**              24.0 (+/-4.4)      38.8 (+/-6.7)   29.8 (+/-4.5)     75.1 (+/-4.8)    60.4 (+/-8.2)   69.3 (+/-3.7)
 Hispanic             28.0 (+/-3.9)      36.2 (+/-7.6)   31.5 (+/-4.2)     84.7 (+/-4.3)    76.8 (+/-5.0)   81.2 (+/-3.5)
Institution type
 2-year               24.7 (+/-2.5)      29.1 (+/-3.2)   26.5 (+/-2.3)     83.4 (+/-2.5)    73.4 (+/-4.2)   79.4 (+/-2.7)
 4-year               25.3 (+/-3.0)      27.4 (+/-4.2)   26.2 (+/-2.9)     86.2 (+/-2.0)    66.7 (+/-3.0)   77.2 (+/-2.0)
Total                 25.0 (+/-2.0)      28.1 (+/-2.8)   26.3 (+/-1.9)     84.9 (+/-1.6)    69.6 (+/-2.5)   78.2 (+/-1.6)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  Students who replied that they did not eat a particular type of food were assigned a frequency of zero. Students who
   replied that they had eaten a particular type of food one or two times were assigned a frequency of 1.0 or 2.0,
   respectively; students who replied that they had eaten a particular type of food three or more times were assigned a
   frequency of 3.0. The number of servings of fruits and vegetables ranged from zero through 12. The number of servings of
   food typically high in fat content ranged from zero through nine.
+  Had eaten >=5 servings of fruit, fruit juice, green salad, and cooked vegetables during the day preceding the survey.
&  Had eaten <=2 servings of hamburgers, hot dogs, or sausage; french fries or potato chips; and cookies, doughnuts, pie,
   or cake during the day preceding the survey.
@  95% confidence level.
** Non-Hispanic.
================================================================================================================================

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Table_19
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TABLE 19. Percentage of college students who were overweight and percentage who thought they were overweight, by sex,
age group, and institution type -- United States, National College Health risk Behavior Survey, 1995
===========================================================================================================================
                                      Overweight*                                      Thought they were
                                                                                           overweight
                      ----------------------------------------------    ---------------------------------------------------
Category                 Female             Male           Total            Female             Male            Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years          13.9 (+/-1.8)+   17.2 (+/-2.1)   15.5 (+/-1.3)     41.8 (+/-2.5)     26.5 (+/-2.8)   34.4 (+/-1.9)
 >=25 years           29.0 (+/-3.1)    28.5 (+/-4.4)   28.8 (+/-2.3)     59.0 (+/-2.8)     44.8 (+/-5.1)   53.6 (+/-2.5)
Race/ethnicity
 White&               18.5 (+/-1.9)    20.7 (+/-2.3)   19.5 (+/-1.5)     49.0 (+/-2.3)     33.3 (+/-3.0)   42.1 (+/-2.1)
 Black&               35.8 (+/-5.0)    30.0 (+/-6.8)   33.5 (+/-4.1)     50.7 (+/-5.2)     27.4 (+/-6.9)   41.5 (+/-4.6)
 Hispanic             16.8 (+/-4.7)    25.7 (+/-5.3)   20.8 (+/-4.0)     51.4 (+/-6.6)     39.0 (+/-5.9)   45.5 (+/-4.6)
Institution type
 2-year               25.3 (+/-2.7)    24.1 (+/-3.3)   24.8 (+/-2.0)     53.4 (+/-2.8)     36.0 (+/-4.4)   46.1 (+/-2.6)
 4-year               15.6 (+/-2.1)    18.5 (+/-2.5)   16.9 (+/-1.7)     44.7 (+/-2.7)     29.8 (+/-3.1)   37.7 (+/-2.3)
Total                 20.2 (+/-1.6)    20.9 (+/-2.0)   20.5 (+/-1.3)     48.8 (+/-1.9)     32.4 (+/-2.7)   41.6 (+/-1.7)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Overweight is defined as a body mass index (BMI=weight {kg}/height {m}^2 >=27.8 for men and >=27.3 for women. This
  classification was based on the 85th percentile value for BMI among persons aged 20-29 years in the Second National
  Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
+ 95% confidence interval.
& Non-Hispanic.
===========================================================================================================================

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Table_20
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TABLE 20. Percentage of college students who reported engaging in behaviors associated with weight control, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and institution type -- United States, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
======================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                               Were attempting                            Dieted to lose or                               Exercised to lose                              Vomited or took                                           Took diet pills
                                 weight loss                               keep from gaining                                or keep from                                laxatives to lose                                          to lose or keep
                                                                                weight*                                     gaining weight*                                or keep from                                              from gaining
                                                                                                                                                                         gaining weight*                                               weight*
                 -------------------------------------------  -------------------------------------------   ----------------------------------------------  --------------------------------------------  --------------------------------------------
Category            Female          Male           Total          Female          Male          Total            Female         Male            Total          Female            Male         Total          Female         Male             Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years     59.0 (+/-2.6)+ 26.2 (+/-2.9)  43.3 (+/-2.0)  40.5 (+/-2.7)  14.0 (+/-2.0)  27.8 (+/-1.8)   64.3  (+/-2.8)  41.7  (+/-3.3)  53.4  (+/-2.0)  5.1  (+/-1.4)   0.4  (+/-0.3)  2.8  (+/-0.8)  6.4  (+/-1.4)  0.8  (+/-0.5)   3.7 (+/-0.7)
 >=25 years      60.9 (+/-3.2)  37.0 (+/-5.3)  51.9 (+/-2.7)  44.5 (+/-3.6)  22.4 (+/-3.9)  36.2 (+/-2.7)   60.5  (+/-3.9)  43.1  (+/-5.6)  54.0  (+/-3.7)  2.7  (+/-1.1)   1.1  (+/-1.1)  2.1  (+/-0.8)  8.0  (+/-2.1)  1.7  (+/-1.1)   5.6 (+/-1.4)
Race/ethnicity
 White&          61.5 (+/-2.5)  30.0 (+/-2.8)  47.7 (+/-2.0)  43.9 (+/-3.1)  16.0 (+/-2.4)  31.6 (+/-2.1)   65.6  (+/-2.7)  42.5  (+/-3.3)  55.5  (+/-2.2)  4.4  (+/-1.2)   0.4  (+/-0.4)  2.6  (+/-0.7)  7.7  (+/-1.5)  1.0  (+/-0.6)   4.8 (+/-0.9)
 Black&          53.5 (+/-4.8)  27.9 (+/-6.6)  43.4 (+/-4.2)  35.8 (+/-6.3)  16.7 (+/-5.7)  28.3 (+/-4.3)   51.3  (+/-5.8)  44.1  (+/-7.2)  48.5  (+/-5.0)  1.7  (+/-1.4)   2.4  (+/-3.5)  2.0  (+/-1.5)  5.0  (+/-1.9)  0.9  (+/-1.2)   3.4 (+/-1.2)
 Hispanic        58.8 (+/-5.0)  31.1 (+/-6.0)  46.6 (+/-4.4)  39.0 (+/-5.8)  19.5 (+/-6.2)  30.5 (+/-4.4)   58.7  (+/-5.2)  47.0  (+/-7.1)  53.7  (+/-4.2)  5.8  (+/-2.9)   1.0  (+/-1.1)  3.7  (+/-1.7)  6.3  (+/-2.6)  1.8  (+/-1.7)   4.3 (+/-1.6)
Institution type
 2-year          61.4 (+/-3.1)  31.6 (+/-3.6)  49.0 (+/-2.7)  45.5 (+/-4.0)  18.9 (+/-2.9)  34.3 (+/-2.9)   59.7  (+/-3.1)  41.7  (+/-4.7)  52.1  (+/-2.7)  4.0  (+/-1.3)   0.9  (+/-0.9)  2.7  (+/-0.8)  8.9  (+/-1.9)  1.8  (+/-1.0)   5.9 (+/-1.2)
 4-year          58.3 (+/-2.8)  28.1 (+/-3.4)  44.3 (+/-2.4)  37.0 (+/-2.5)  15.1 (+/-2.5)  27.9 (+/-2.1)   65.3  (+/-3.4)  42.7  (+/-3.3)  54.8  (+/-2.6)  4.2  (+/-1.4)   0.3  (+/-0.5)  2.4  (+/-0.7)  5.3 ( +/-1.4)  0.6  (+/-0.5)   3.1 (+/-0.7)
Total            59.8 (+/-2.1)  29.6 (+/-2.5)  46.4 (+/-1.8)  42.1 (+/-2.3)  16.7 (+/-1.9)  30.8 (+/-1.7)   62.6  (+/-2.3)  42.3  (+/-2.7)  53.6  (+/-1.9)  4.2  (+/-0.9)   0.6  (+/-0.5)  2.6  (+/-0.6)  7.0  (+/-1.2)  1.1  (+/-0.5)   4.3 (+/-0.7)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* During the 30 days preceding the survey.
+ 95% confidence interval.
& Non-Hispanic.
======================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_21
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TABLE 21. Percentage of college students who participated in vigorous physical activity,* moderate physical activity,+ stretching exercises,& and
strengthening exercises,@ by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and institution type -- United States, National College Health risk Behavior Survey, 1995
===================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                       Participated in                                      Participated in                                    Participated in                                      Participated in
                                          vigorous                                         moderate physical                                     stretching                                          strengthening
                                      physical activity                                        activity                                           exercises                                            exercises
                       ----------------------------------------------     -------------------------------------------------   -------------------------------------------------    ------------------------------------------------
Category                 Female              Male            Total            Female             Male            Total           Female            Male             Total             Female             Male           Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years           35.3 (+/-3.0)**  48.9 (+/-3.8)    41.8 (+/-2.5)     20.8 (+/-2.6)     19.6 (+/-3.2)   20.2 (+/-1.9)    36.0 (+/-2.8)    36.0 (+/-3.2)   36.0   (+/-2.2)     30.0 (+/-2.7)    37.1 (+/-3.3)   33.4 (+/-2.1)
 >=25 years            29.7 (+/-3.4)    32.2 (+/-4.8)    30.6 (+/-2.7)     17.0 (+/-2.7)     19.9 (+/-4.9)   18.1 (+/-2.5)    32.3 (+/-3.6)    29.0 (+/-5.1)   31.0   (+/-2.8)     21.8 (+/-3.0)    26.3 (+/-4.1)   23.5 (+/-2.5)
Race/ethnicity
 White++               34.7 (+/-2.6)    43.8  (+/-4.0)   38.7 (+/-2.5)     18.2 (+/-2.4)     18.1 (+/-2.8)   18.2 (+/-1.9)    35.6 (+/-2.9)    33.0 (+/-3.4)   34.5   (+/-2.3)     28.1 (+/-2.2)    32.5 (+/-3.1)   30.1 (+/-1.9)
 Black++               27.6 (+/-4.5)    50.3  (+/-9.8)   36.6 (+/-5.0)     24.6 (+/-4.5)     32.0 (+/-8.5)   27.6 (+/-4.9)    29.4 (+/-4.8)    44.1 (+/-7.0)   35.2   (+/-4.5)     21.4 (+/-4.7)    46.3 (+/-7.6)   31.2 (+/-4.9)
 Hispanic              30.6 (+/-5.3)    41.7  (+/-7.4)   35.4 (+/-4.2)     20.4 (+/-4.5)     22.9 (+/-6.0)   21.4 (+/-3.7)    33.9 (+/-4.8)    34.8 (+/-7.5)   34.2   (+/-4.5)     26.5 (+/-4.5)    37.4 (+/-8.1)   31.2 (+/-3.9)
Institution type
 2-year                30.8 (+/-2.7)    41.9  (+/-5.2)   35.3 (+/-3.0)     18.8 (+/-2.4)     16.5 (+/-2.6)   17.9 (+/-2.0)    32.4 (+/-3.1)    33.5 (+/-3.7)   32.7   (+/-2.6)     23.7 (+/-2.1)    36.0 (+/-3.8)   28.9 (+/-2.5)
 4-year                35.0 (+/-3.6)    45.0  (+/-4.0)   39.6 (+/-2.9)     19.8 (+/-3.0)     22.2 (+/-3.5)   20.8 (+/-2.4)    36.2 (+/-3.1)    34.2 (+/-4.0)   35.2   (+/-2.6)     29.5 (+/-2.8)    32.3 (+/-3.9)   30.7 (+/-2.4)
Total                  33.0 (+/-2.3)    43.7  (+/-3.2)   37.6 (+/-2.1)     19.3 (+/-1.9)     19.7 (+/-2.3)   19.5 (+/-1.6)    34.4 (+/-2.2)    33.9 (+/-2.8)   34.1   (+/-1.8)     26.8 (+/-1.8)    33.9 (+/-2.8)   29.9 (+/-1.7)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  Activities that caused sweating and hard breathing for >=20 minutes on >=3 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
+  Walked or bicycled for >=30 minutes on >=5 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
&  Such as toe touching, knee bending, or leg stretching on >=3 days of the 7 days preceding the survey.
@  Such as push-ups, sit ups, or weight lifting on >=3 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
** 95% confidence interval.
++ Non-Hispanic.
===================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_22
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TABLE 22. Percentage of college students who were enrolled in a physical education (PE) class* or participated on a college
sports team,+ by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and institution type -- United States, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
===========================================================================================================================================
                                                                                           Participated on a
                                                                                             college sports
                                         Enrolled in PE class                                     team
                      --------------------------------------------------    --------------------------------------------------
Category                   Female              Male           Total            Female              Male            Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years           25.5 (+/-3.5)&     27.4 (+/-4.7)   26.4 (+/-3.6)     16.4 (+/-2.4)     35.1 (+/-4.6)    25.4 (+/-3.1)
 >=25 years            11.8 (+/-2.5)      10.0 (+/-2.9)   11.2 (+/-2.1)      1.4 (+/-0.8)      7.1 (+/-2.7)     3.6 (+/-1.1)
Race/ethnicity
 White@                19.8 (+/-3.2)      21.4 (+/-4.6)   20.5 (+/-3.3)     10.7 (+/-2.0)     27.8 (+/-4.3)    18.3 (+/-2.9)
 Black@                18.1 (+/-6.3)      27.1 (+/-9.9)   21.7 (+/-6.7)      7.8 (+/-3.3)     35.9 (+/-10.2)   18.8 (+/-5.3)
 Hispanic              19.4 (+/-4.6)      14.4 (+/-4.6)   17.6 (+/-3.8)      6.3 (+/-2.7)     13.3 (+/- 4.5)    9.4 (+/-2.5)
Institution type
 2-year                19.6 (+/-3.7)      20.1 (+/-4.9)   19.8 (+/-3.5)      4.7 (+/-1.3)     11.4 (+/-3.6)     7.5 (+/-1.8)
 4-year                20.5 (+/-3.9)      22.8 (+/-5.4)   21.6 (+/-4.0)     15.4 (+/-2.7)     38.0 (+/-5.2)    25.8 (+/-3.8)
Total                  20.1 (+/-2.7)      21.7 (+/-3.8)   20.8 (+/-2.7)     10.3 (+/-1.5)     26.6 (+/-3.6)    17.5 (+/-2.3)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* During the 1994-1995 school year.
+ On >=1 intramural or extramural teams during the 1994-1995 school year.
& 95% confidence interval.
@ Non-Hispanic.
===========================================================================================================================================

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Table_23
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TABLE 23. Percentage of college students who reported receiving information from their college or university on each health topic, by sex, age group,
race/ethnicity, and institution type -- United States, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
================================================================================================================================================================================
                                     Injury prevention                                        Violence                                       Suicide prevention
                                         and safety                                          prevention
                     -------------------------------------------------    -------------------------------------------------     ------------------------------------------------
Category                  Female             Male            Total            Female             Male           Total             Female              Male           Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years          26.4  (+/-2.5)*    25.1 (+/-3.0)   25.8 (+/-2.1)     40.6 (+/-2.9)    36.0 (+/-3.4)   38.4 (+/-2.5)      20.3 (+/-2.2)     21.0 (+/-2.8)   20.6 (+/-2.0)
 >=25 years           17.0 (+/-2.6)      17.5 (+/-3.8)   17.2 (+/-1.8)     26.2 (+/-3.9)    22.7 (+/-5.1)   24.8 (+/-3.3)      11.4 (+/-2.0)     13.7 (+/-3.3)   12.3 (+/-2.0)
Race/ethnicity
 White+               22.2 (+/-2.5)      22.2 (+/-3.0)   22.2 (+/-2.1)     34.5 (+/-2.9)    32.1 (+/-3.8)   33.4 (+/-2.7)      16.7 (+/-2.2)     19.2 (+/-3.1)   17.8 (+/-2.1)
 Black+               24.4 (+/-4.8)      24.7 (+/-6.1)   24.5 (+/-4.0)     37.6 (+/-5.1)    35.8 (+/-8.7)   36.9 (+/-4.7)      17.1 (+/-4.8)     19.4 (+/-6.4)   18.0 (+/-4.3)
 Hispanic             18.6 (+/-4.8)      21.4 (+/-7.0    19.8 (+/-3.9)     31.3 (+/-5.4)    27.3 (+/-6.2)   29.3 (+/-3.8)      15.8 (+/-3.7)     14.1 (+/-4.6)   14.9 (+/-2.7)
Institution type
 2-year               19.1 (+/-2.7)      18.4 (+/-3.0)   18.6 (+/-1.9)     25.6 (+/-3.4)    20.7 (+/-3.6)   23.3 (+/-2.6)      11.8 (+/-2.3)     12.9 (+/-2.5)   12.2 (+/-1.8)
 4-year               25.8 (+/-2.9)      26.2 (+/-3.4)   25.8 (+/-2.4)     43.4 (+/-3.8)    40.3 (+/-4.2)   41.8 (+/-3.0)      21.3 (+/-2.5)     23.3 (+/-3.7)   22.1 (+/-2.6)
Total                 22.6 (+/-2.0)      22.8 (+/-2.4)   22.5 (+/-2.0)     35.0 (+/-2.6)    31.9 (+/-3.1)   33.4 (+/-2.2)      16.8 (+/-1.7)     18.8 (+/-2.5)   17.6 (+/-1.7)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* 95% confidence interval.
+ Non-Hispanic.
================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_24
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TABLE 24. Percentage of college students who reported receiving information from their college or university on pregnancy and sexually transmitted
disease prevention, who reported being taught about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a
college class, and who reported having their blood tested for HIV infection, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and institution type -- United States,
National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
=======================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                 Sexually                                     AIDS or HIV                                    Was taught                                      Had blood
                                                                                transmitted                                     infection                                    about AIDS or                                   tested for
                                                                                  disease                                      prevention                                    HIV infection                                  HIV infection
                                    Pregnancy                                    prevention                                                                                  in a college
                                    prevention                                                                                                                                  class
                    ------------------------------------------  ---------------------------------------------  --------------------------------------------   -------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------
Category                 Female          Male      Total           Female          Male           Total          Female           Male           Total          Female           Male           Total          Female           Male           Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
18-24 years         37.6 (+/-3.0)* 29.4 (+/-2.8) 33.6 (+/-2.3)  52.4 (+/-3.6)   53.9 (+/-3.5)  53.2 (+/-2.9)   57.8 (+/-3.0)   54.0 (+/-3.4)  57.9 (+/-2.5)   48.1 (+/-3.3)   45.4 (+/-3.7)  46.8 (+/-2.7) 34.6 (+/-2.7)  29.3 (+/-3.1)  32.1 (+/-2.2)
  >=25 years        15.0 (+/-3.2)  15.7 (+/-3.5) 15.3 (+/-2.2)  26.1 (+/-3.7)   28.8 (+/-4.8)  27.0 (+/-3.2)   34.3 (+/-3.8)   34.9 (+/-5.2)  34.4 (+/-3.3)   34.6 (+/-4.0)   28.4 (+/-5.2)  32.2 (+/-3.6) 45.3 (+/-4.0)  57.9 (+/-5.1)  50.2 (+/-3.6)
Race/ethnicity
White+              26.3 (+/-2.9)  24.0 (+/-3.0) 25.2 (+/-2.2)  39.3 (+/-3.6)   44.5 (+/-4.3)  41.6 (+/-3.3)   46.4 (+/-3.4)   50.4 (+/-4.0)  48.2 (+/-3.1)   40.9 (+/-3.0)   37.9 (+/-3.9)  39.6 (+/-2.7) 37.5 (+/-2.9)  38.2 (+/-3.3)  37.8 (+/-2.3)
Black+              36.8 (+/-6.0)  33.6 (+/-7.9) 35.5 (+/-5.4)  49.3 (+/-7.1)   57.3 (+/-8.3)  52.4 (+/-6.2)   51.3 (+/-7.1)   56.5 (+/-7.7)  53.4 (+/-5.8)   51.5 (+/-7.5)   47.0 (+/-8.8)  49.7 (+/-6.7) 49.4 (+/-5.9)  53.5 (+/-6.1)  51.0 (+/-4.2)
Hispanic            29.4 (+/-4.9)  25.6 (+/-6.4) 27.6 (+/-3.7)  47.4 (+/-6.2)   42.0 (+/-7.9)  44.7 (+/-4.9)   52.0 (+/-5.8)   47.0 (+/-8.7)  49.5 (+/-4.4)   43.6 (+/-6.7)   42.3 (+/-9.0)  42.8 (+/-5.8) 45.3 (+/-6.2)  44.9 (+/-6.9)  45.4 (+/-4.6)
Institution type
2-year              21.3 (+/-3.1)  18.0 (+/-3.9) 19.7 (+/-2.9)  32.5 (+/-4.1)   33.9 (+/-5.1)  32.8 (+/-3.8)   38.9 (+/-4.5)   38.5 (+/-5.5)  38.4 (+/-4.0)   40.4 (+/-4.3)   35.3 (+/-4.8)  38.1 (+/-3.8) 43.1 (+/-3.8)  44.0 (+/-3.5)  43.5 (+/-2.9)
4-year              34.8 (+/-4.2)  30.7 (+/-3.0) 32.7 (+/-2.7)  50.4 (+/-5.5)   55.0 (+/-4.0)  52.3 (+/-4.1)   57.0 (+/-4.3)   59.8 (+/-3.5)  58.0 (+/-3.3)   44.9 (+/-4.0)   43.4 (+/-4.3)  44.1 (+/-3.4) 34.9 (+/-3.1)  34.8 (+/-3.9)  34.9 (+/-2.6)
Total               28.4 (+/-2.6)  25.3 (+/-2.5) 26.8 (+/-2.0)  41.9 (+/-3.4)   46.0 (+/-3.4)  43.4 (+/-2.9)   48.4 (+/-3.1)   50.6 (+/-3.4)  49.1 (+/-2.7)   42.8 (+/-2.9)   39.9 (+/-3.2)  41.4 (+/-2.6) 38.8 (+/-2.4)  38.8 (+/-2.8)  38.8 (+/-2.0)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* 95% confidence interval.
+ Non-Hispanic
=======================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_25
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TABLE 25. Percentage of college students who reported receiving information from their college or university on each health topic, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and institution type -- United States, National College
Health Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
===================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                       Tobacco use                                     Alcohol and other                                  Dietary behaviors                                   Physical activity
                                        prevention                                         drug use                                         and nutrition                                        and fitness
                                                                                          prevention
                                                                        ------------------------------------------------     -----------------------------------------------   ----------------------------------------------------
Category                      Female       Male            Total            Female             Male           Total            Female             Male            Total            Female              Male            Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age group
 18-24 years           30.3 (+/-2.4)*  33.5 (+/-3.8)   31.8 (+/-2.5)     57.6 (+/-3.3)    61.3 (+/-3.6)   59.4 (+/-2.7)     38.9 (+/-3.3)     27.7 (+/-3.6)   33.5 (+/-2.7)     39.4 (+/-3.3)     41.1 (+/-3.8)    40.2 (+/-2.8)
 >=25 years            20.2 (+/-3.2)   23.0 (+/-4.1)   21.2 (+/-2.8)     30.4 (+/-3.2)    36.0 (+/-4.9)   32.4 (+/-3.0)     27.5 (+/-3.7)     22.5 (+/-4.2)   25.6 (+/-3.0)     30.0 (+/-4.0)     28.4 (+/-3.8)    29.3 (+/-3.0)
Race/ethnicity
 White+                26.5 (+/-2.2)   30.4 (+/-3.9)   28.2 (+/-2.4)     45.2 (+/-3.2)    52.0 (+/-4.6)   48.2 (+/-3.2)     34.4 (+/-2.8)     25.6 (+/-3.5)   30.5 (+/-2.5)     34.8 (+/-3.1)     36.1 (+/-3.9)    35.3 (+/-2.9)
 Black+                25.1 (+/-5.7)   27.1 (+/-7.2)   25.9 (+/-5.2)     52.5 (+/-6.6)    60.2 (+/-7.7)   55.6 (+/-5.4)     32.4 (+/-6.2)     22.9 (+/-6.9)   28.6 (+/-5.2)     35.1 (+/-6.5)     40.4 (+/-7.1)    37.2 (+/-5.3)
 Hispanic              22.5 (+/-5.1)   29.4 (+/-6.4)   25.5 (+/-3.9)     46.6 (+/-6.2)    50.3 (+/-5.7)   48.0 (+/-4.0)     27.1 (+/-5.7)     27.4 (+/-6.4)   27.5 (+/-4.5)     34.8 (+/-5.6)     34.0 (+/-6.9)    34.3 (+/-4.4)
Institution type
 2-year                21.9 (+/-3.0)   24.9 (+/-4.0)   22.9 (+/-2.8)     36.7 (+/-3.6)    41.5 (+/-4.4)   38.3 (+/-3.4)     28.0 (+/-3.4)     20.5 (+/-4.3)   24.6 (+/-3.1)     31.5 (+/-3.5)     32.6 (+/-4.5)    31.6 (+/-3.3)
 4-year                30.2 (+/-2.5)   34.3 (+/-4.5)   31.9 (+/-2.8)     55.4 (+/-4.6)    62.1 (+/-4.1)   58.2 (+/-3.7)     39.9 (+/-3.8)     30.1 (+/-3.8)   35.2 (+/-3.0)     39.0 (+/-4.2)     40.3 (+/-4.3)    39.4 (+/-3.3)
Total                  26.2 (+/-2.0)   30.3 (+/-3.2)   27.8 (+/-2.0)     46.5 (+/-3.0)    53.3 (+/-3.4)   49.2 (+/-2.7)     34.2 (+/-2.5)     26.0 (+/-2.9)   30.4 (+/-2.2)     35.4 (+/-2.8)     37.0 (+/-3.1)    35.9 (+/-2.4)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* 95% confidence interval.
+ Non-Hispanic
===================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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