Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Endnotes

[1] Computed from data in the FBI’s annual Uniform Crime Reports, Crime in the United States, 1989-2004.

[2] Braiden (1986).

[3] Gould, Camp and Peck (1986); Clarke (1989); Clarke, Field and McGrath (1991); Leineweber and Buchler (1991).

[4] Calculated from the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports, 1989 – 2004.

[5] Wilgoren (2002); computed from Uniform Crime Reports.

[6] Desroches (1995).

[7] Hannan (1982); Gould, Camp, and Peck (1986); Baumer and Carrington (1986).

[8] Vardalis and Cox (1998).

[9] Wipprecht (2002a); Wilgoren (2002); Hechinger (2002).

[10] Radecki, Wenninger, and Orlow (1996) [Full text]; Sanders (2004); Robson (1999).

[11] Matthews (1996).

[12] Federal Bureau of Investigation (2003) [Full text].

[13] Erickson (1996).

[14] Federal Bureau of Investigation (2003) [Full text].

[15] Desroches (1995); Letkemann (1973); Leineweber and Buchler (1991).

[16] Barancik (1998).

[17] Buchler and Leineweber (1991); Gill and Matthews (1994); Hurst (1996).

[18] Gill and Matthews (1994); Erickson (1996).

[19] Cook (1983) [Full text]; Hauge (1969); Vardalis and Cox (1998); Leineweber and Buchler (1991); Austin (1988) [Full text].

[20] Matthews, Pease and Pease (2001) [Full text].

[21] Leineweber and Buchler (1991); Haran (1982); Baumer and Carrington (1986) [Full text].

[22] Calculated from solution statistics reported by the FBI Field Offices for 2003 for robbery, burglary and larceny. Solution rates for robbery are not separated from bank burglary and larceny, but most of the bank crimes are robbery.

[23] McCormick (2005).

[24] Blankenburg and Feest (1977).

[25] Haran (1982); Federal Bureau of Investigation (2003) [Full text].

[26] Calculated from solution statistics reported by the FBI Field Offices for 2003.

[27] Buchler and Leineweber (1991); Desroches (1995).

[28] Rehder and Dillow (2003).

[29] Morrison and O’Donnell (1994).

[30] Administrative Office of Courts (1991).

[31] Kube (1988); Barancik (1998); Gould, Camp and Peck (1986); Trudel and LeBlanc (1986); Gabor and Normandau (1989).

[32] Hannan (1982); Barancik (1998); Erickson and Balzer (2003) [Full text].

[33] Grandjean (1990); Leineweber and Buchler (1991); Wise and Wise (1985).

[34] Bankersonline (2002); Wilgoren (2002); Weir and Santos (2003).

[35] Gill and Matthews (1994); Gill and Pease (1998); Gabor and Normandeau (1989); Leineweber and Buchler (1991); Haran (1982); Gabor et al. (1987); Camp (1968); Johnston (1978).

[36] Federal Bureau of Investigation (2003); Baumer and Carrington (1986); Vardalis and Cox (1998); Desroches (1995).

[37] Borzycki (2003) [Full text]; Cook (1983) [Full text]; Federal Bureau of Investigation (2003) [Full text].

[38] Federal Bureau of Investigation (2003) [Full text]; Borzycki (2003) [Full text]; Matthews (1996);Vardalis and Cox (1998).

[39] Federal Bureau of Investigation (2003) [Full text].

[40] Borzycki (2003) [Full text]; Matthews (1996);Vardalis and Cox (1998).

[41] Nugent et al. (1989).

[42] Borzycki (2003) [Full text].

[43] Arend (1994).

[44] Morrison and O’Donnell (1994).

[45] Johnston (1978).

[46] Saylor and Janus (1981); Vardalis and Cox (1998); Buchler and Leineweber (1991).

[47] Leineweber and Buchler (1991).

[48] Van Koppen and Jansen (1999); Van Koppen and Jansen (1998).

[49] Gill and Matthews (1994); Erickson (1996).

[50] Erickson (1996); Desroches (1995); Johnston (1978); Gabor et al. (1987); Erickson and Stenseth (1996); Leineweber and Buchler (1991); Kube (1988); Nugent et al. (1989); Tiffany and Ketchel (1978).

[51] Nugent et al. (1989); Gill and Pease (1998).

[52] Gould, Camp and Peck (1986); Nugent et al. (1989).

[53] Robson (1999).

[54] Blankenburg and Feest (1977).

[55] Gould, Camp and Peck (1986); Nugent et al. (1989); Gill and Pease (1998); Gill and Matthews (1994); Vardalis and Cox (1998).

[56] Vardalis and Cox (1998).

[57] Vardalis and Cox (1998).

[58] Van Koppen and Jansen (1998).

[59] Desroches (1995).

[60] Buchler and Leineweber (1991).

[61] Baumer and Carrington (1986) [Full text].

[62] Hannan (1982); Desroches (1995).

[63] Saylor and Janus (1981).

[64] Tiffany and Ketchel (1978).

[65] Saylor and Janus (1981).

[66] Matthews (1996).

[67] Matthews, Pease and Pease (2001) [Full text].

[68] Wise and Wise (1985).

[69] Saylor and Janus (1981).

[70] Baumer and Carrington (1986).

[71] Gill and Pease (1998); Gill and Matthews (1994); Matthews (1996).

[72] Clarke (1990) [Full text]; Clarke and McGrath (1992).

[73] Matthews, Pease and Pease (2001) [Full text].

[74] Van Koppen and Jansen (1999); Buchler and Leineweber (1991); Bruce (2002).

[75] Bruce (2002).

[76] Buchler and Leineweber (1991); Van Koppen and Jansen (1999); Bruce (2002); Vardalis and Cox (1998).

[77] Gill and Matthews (1994); Van Koppen and Jansen (1999).

[78] Gabor and Normandeau (1989).

[79] Van Koppen and Jansen (1999).

[80] Van Koppen and Jansen (1999).

[81] Abraham and Baldassaro (2001).

[82] Abraham and Baldassaro (2001).

[83] Rehder and Dillow (2003).

[84] Hurst (1996); Erickson and Balzer (2003) [Full text].

[85] Tiffany and Ketchel (1978); Morrison and O’Donnell (1994).

[86] Hechinger (2002); Austin (1988) [Full text].

[87] Morrison and O’Donnell (1994); Hechinger (2002); Buchler and Leineweber (1991); Kube (1988); Austin (1988) [Full text].

[88] Leineweber and Buchler (1991).

[89] Economist (2003).

[90] Abraham and Baldassaro (2001).

[91] Barancik (1998); Tiffany and Ketchel (1978); Hannan (1982).

[92] Nugent et al. (1989); Hannan (1982); Saylor and Janus (1981).

[93] Erickson and Balzer (2003) [Full text].

[94] Baumer and Carrington (1986) [Full text]; Hannan (1982); Nugent et al. (1989).

[95] Hechinger (2002).

[96] Nugent et al. (1989); Kube (1988); Buchler and Leineweber (1991).

[97] Kube (1988).

[98] Federal Communications Commission (1996) [Full text].

[99] Erickson and Balzer (2003) [Full text].

[100] Massachusetts Bankers Association (2003).

[101] Bankersonline (2002).

[102] Erickson and Balzer (2003) [Full text].

[103] Gill and Matthews (1994); Vardalis and Cox (1998); Wise and Wise (1985).

[104] Kenney (2003).

[105] Baumer and Carrington (1986).

[106] Weir and Santos (2003); Kenney (2003); Carroll and Loch (1997) [Full text]; Lissenden (1996) [Full text].

[107] Erickson and Balzer (2003) [Full text].

[108] Desroches (1995); Gould, Camp and Peck (1986); Hannan (1982).

[109] Baumer and Carrington (1986) [Full text].

[110] Buchler and Leineweber (1991); Kube (1988); Matthews (1996).

[111] Barancik (1998).

[112] Saylor and Janus (1981).

[113] Erickson and Balzer (2003) [Full text]; Leineweber and Buchler (1991).

[114] Wipprecht (2002b).

[115] Austin (1988); Grandjean (1990); Leineweber and Buchler (1991).

[116] Wipprecht (2002b).

[117] Hechinger (2002).

[118] Gill and Matthews (1994); Wise and Wise (1985); Nugent et al. (1989).

[119] Nugent et al. (1989); Gill and Matthews (1994); Archea (1985).

[120] Gould, Camp and Peck (1986).

[121] Clarke (1990) [Full text]; Clarke and McGrath (1992).

[122] Camp (1968); Johnston (1978).

[123] Lissenden (1996) [Full text].

[124] Gabor et al. (1987); Nugent et al. (1989); Gabor and Normandeau (1989).

[125] Desroches (1995).

[126] Buchler and Leineweber (1991); Kube (1988); Matthews (1996).

[127] Rehder and Dillow (2003).

[128] Buchler and Leineweber (1991).