Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Endnotes

[1] See Connors (2007) for a list of other law enforcement concerns when policing major events. [Full text]

[2] Eugene Police Commission (2001).

[3] Jayson (2004).

[4] Marsh et al. (1996).

[5] Duke and Crolley (1996).

[6] Russell (2004).

[7] Ward (2002).

[8] Ballard (2004).

[9] O'Reilly (1999).

[10] Lewis (2007); Sharp (1992); Ward (2002); Young (2002).

[11] Young (2002).

[12] Wann et al. (2003).

[13] Gramling (2001); Young (1988).

[14] O'Reilly (1999).

[15]Number of venues taken from list published at http://sportsvenues.com.

[16] Smith (2007).

[17] McCallum (2004).

[18] Price (2003).

[19] Sappenfield (2004).

[20] See literature review in Russell (2004).

[21] Branscombe and Wann (1992).

[22] Branscombe and Wann (1992); Poulin (1992); Roberts and Benjamin (2000); Russell (2004).

[23] One example is the 2000 Roskilde Festival where nine fans were crushed to death during a Pearl Jam performance.

[24] Arbetter and Holy (1994).

[25] Stott and Adang (2005).

[26] Price (2003).

[27] Dewar (1979); Reifman, Larrick, and Fein (1991).

[28] Bale (2000).

[29] Veno and Veno (1993).

[30] Wann et al. (2003).

[31] Courakis (1999).

[32] Madensen and Eck (2006). [Full text]

[33] Sivarajasingam, Moore, and Shepherd (2004).

[34] Russell (1983).

[35] Russell (2004).

[36] Wann et al. (2003).

[37] McNamara (1999).

[38] Johnson (2004). [Full text]

[39] Neal et al. (2005); Nelson and Wechsler (2003).

[40] Russell (2004).

[41] Roadburg (1980).

[42] Waddell (2000).

[43] Getlen (2006).

[44] Stark (1999).

[45] Russell (2004).

[46] Arms and Russell (1997).

[47] See Miller and Gillentine's (2006) review of recent cases.

[48] Arbetter and Holy (1994).

[49] Garland and Rowe (1999). [Full text]

[50] Arbetter and Holy (1994).

[51] Stott and Reicher (1998).

[52] Getlen (2006).

[53] Courakis (1999).

[54] Connors (2007). [Full text]

[55] Courakis (1999).

[56] See Felson's (1995) discussion of different types of controllers. [Full text]

[57] Alpert and Flynn (2000).

[58] Stott and Adang (2005).

[59] Coates (1972).

[60] Estes (2004).

[61] Connors (2007). [Full text]

[62] Rees and Schnepel (2008).

[63] Human Effects Advisory Panel (2001). [Full text]

[64] Garland and Rowe (2000). [Full text]

[65] Stott and Reicher (1998).

[66] Berk (1974); McPhail (1991).

[67] Russell (2004); Westin (2003).

[68] Cox (1998).

[69] Abbott and Geddie (2001). [Full text]

[70] Cox (1998).

[71] Abbott and Geddie (2001). [Full text]

[72] Abbott and Geddie (2001). [Full text]

[73] No NFL team has ever had the home field advantage, although it is possible since the location is chosen three to five years before the actual game is played.

[74] University of California Police Department-Berkeley (2000). [Full text]

[75] Young (2002).

[76] Young (2002).

[77] Yonker (2007).

[78] Brindley (1982).

[79] Abbott and Geddie (2001) [Full text]; Dimmock and Grove (2005).

[80] Russell (2004); Sir Norman Chester Center for Football Research (2001).

[81]Associated Press (2005).

[82] Rushin (2004).

[83]Associated Press (2006).

[84] Sir Norman Chester Center for Football Research (2001).

[85] Young (2002).

[86] Abbott and Geddie (2001). [Full text]

[87] LaRoi (2007).

[88] Goodman (2001); Weiss and Davis (2005).

[89] MacDonald (2004).

[90] Abbott and Geddie (2001). [Full text]

[91] Talalay (2007).

[92] Dimmock and Grove (2005).

[93] Cox (1998).

[94] Westin (2003).

[95] Young (2002).

[96] Bralley (2007).

[97] Russell and Mustonen (1998).

[98] Veno and Veno (1993). [Full text]

[99] Cox (1998).

[100] Abbott and Geddie (2001). [Full text]

[101] Metscher (1996).

[102] Stott and Adang (2005).

[103] Nylen (1994).

[104] O'Reilly (1999).

[105] Morrone (1994).

[106] Sharp (1992).

[107] Morrison and Airey (2002).

[108] Weiss and Davis (2005).

[109] Weiss and Davis (2005)

[110] Eugene Police Commission (2001).

[111] Begert (1998); Eugene Police Commission (2001); Russell (2004); Weiss and Davis (2005).

[112] Zezima (2005).

[113] Eugene Police Commission (2001).

[114] Dimmock and Grove (2005).