SPEED MANAGEMENT WORK PLAN

FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION
NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION

April 1997


Cover Page Contents
INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND

OVERVIEW OF SPEED MANAGEMENT

1. Improved Information and Analysis

2. Speed Zoning

3. Technology Development

4. Enforcement

5. Public Information & Education


INTRODUCTION

Speeding--exceeding the posted speed limit or driving too fast for conditions--is recognized as a contributing factor in about one-third of all fatal traffic crashes. In 1994, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) joint Speed Management Task Force developed a comprehensive, multi-faceted plan to examine speed-related issues.

The plan is part of the continuing commitment by NHTSA and FHWA to reduce the number of speed-related fatalities and injuries occurring on our highways. It is responsive to the joint NHTSA/FHWA Policy Statement on Speeding and Highway Safety, and supports the Department of Transportation's strategic plan to reduce significantly deaths and injuries on our highways. The plan was first issued by the Administrator of each agency in March 1995 and will be updated biannually.

Congress repealed the National Maximum Speed Limit (NMSL), effective December8, 1995. This repeal allows states to set speed limits greater than those allowed under the old NMSL, which permitted a maximum of 65 mph on rural Interstate highways and a maximum of 55 mph on other highways. Since the repeal, many states have raised speed limits on both Interstate and non-Interstate roads. To address these changes, planned speed management activities have been refocused, and new tasks have been added. This will allow the Department of Transportation to better serve the state and local highway safety and engineering community.

Two new activities are of particular significance. The first is a complete reexamination of criteria used to determine and set speed limits. A contract to accomplish this task was awarded to the Transportation Research Board (TRB), which will use a variety of disciplines to develop recommendations for use in setting safe and proper speed limits. The second activity, a Report to Congress, is required under the National Highway System Designation Act of 1995. The report requires "The Secretary, in cooperation with any state that raises its speed limit, shall prepare a study of the costs to the state of deaths and injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes, and the benefits associated with the repeal of the national maximum speed limit." In addition, effective FY 1998, the FHWA Office of Research and Development has proposed a new high priority research project addressing traffic calming. Those speed-related traffic calming studies will be included in future updates of the Speed Management Work Plan.

Other new activities are proposed to support recent changes in federal legislation and policy. This updated plan reflects both the accomplishments to date, as well as new, refocused activities undertaken or planned by the agencies. Activities planned beyond FY 1997 are subject to funding availability.


BACKGROUND

Travel at reasonable speeds on highways promotes the nation's productivity. Most highways and motor vehicles are designed and built for safe operation at the speeds traveled by most motorists. Nevertheless, exceeding the posted speed limits and/or driving too fast for conditions are contributing factors in many fatal crashes. It is estimated that speeding is cited as a contributing factor in approximately 12 percent of all police reported crashes and, in 1995, speeding was associated with approximately 31 percent of all fatal crashes. The Department of Transportation (DOT) estimates that the economic cost of speed-related crashes exceeds $27 billion per year.

In 1995, about 43 percent of speeding-related fatal crashes occurred on roads with a posted speed limit of less than 55 mph. There were more than 2,880 speed-related fatal crashes on roads with posted speed limits of 35 mph or less and 2,616 speeding-related fatal crashes on roads with posted speed limits between 40 mph and 50 mph, indicating that speed is a problem on local roads as well as major highways.

Speeding involves many factors including public attitudes, personal behavior, vehicle performance, roadway characteristics, enforcement strategies, court sanctions, and speed zoning. The consequences of excessive speed include: increased potential for loss of vehicle control; reduced effectiveness of passenger safety equipment; greater stopping distances; increased distance traveled during driver reaction time; and, an increase in the degree of crash severity which result in more disabling injuries. Studies show that crash severity increases as vehicle speed increases.

Despite the fact that speed directly relates to the severity of a crash, the motoring public generally does not view speeding as a safety problem. Further, speed limits are generally viewed as guides with few, if any, consequences for being ignored.

Unfortunately, the highway profession has done little to change this perception. In fact, many things are done to reinforce the perception by drivers that speed limits are only guides including: posting speed limits far below the design speed of the highway; posting speed limits far below the 85th percentile speed; inability or unwillingness of enforcement agencies to enforce speeding violations; and, unwillingness of courts to adequately penalize offenders. Solutions to this problem are complex. Processes and systems are needed which encourage voluntary compliance on the part of motorists and reinforce this compliance by selective enforcement and penalties which will act as a deterrent.

It was evident that a broad-based approach was required, involving both the FHWA and NHTSA. An interagency working group was formed to develop a strategy that encompasses enforcement, public information and education, traffic engineering, and behavioral efforts, both in the operations and research arena. This document represents that strategy.


OVERVIEW OF SPEED MANAGEMENT

OBJECTIVE. The objective of this program is to develop a wide range of strategies to manage speeding--exceeding the posted speed limit or driving too fast for conditions--more effectively on our nation's highways, thereby reducing crashes and fatalities.

APPROACH. Both a research and operational test approach is proposed. Work will be accomplished in a wide variety of areas including enforcement, education, public information, traffic engineering, crash analysis, and human behavior. Activities will be undertaken independently and jointly by FHWA and NHTSA. In general, what is known about speed and speeding will be compiled and summarized. Knowledge gaps will be identified and attempts made to fill those gaps and evaluate new mechanisms and processes. Where technologies exist, outreach activities will be identified, implemented, and evaluated.

This document provides specific activities either in progress or being planned. The activities are divided into five categories presented below with the objective of each:

1. Improved Information and Analysis--to gather and analyze information designed to provide insight into the speeding problem and its associated consequences.

2. Speed Zoning--to develop and implement rational criteria for setting speed limits.

3. Technology Development--to identify, develop, and evaluate applicable speed management technologies.

4. Enforcement--to develop innovative and effective speed enforcement methods, strategies, and programs.

5. Public Information and Education--to develop methods, strategies, and programs to inform the public, law enforcement agencies, engineers, and the judiciary of the dangers of speeding and the steps being taken to reduce speeding and its consequences.

Within each category, activities are summarized and, where appropriate, the current status stated. "Activities" can include demonstration projects, studies, tasks within studies, etc. The agency having the lead for the activity, as well as implementation dates are noted in brackets for each. Activities are cross-referenced for the ease of the reader.


1. Improved Information and Analysis

OBJECTIVE: To gather and analyze information designed to provide insight into the speeding problem and its associated consequences.

Activity 1.1. Speed/Crash Problem Identification. A study of crashes including on-scene crash reconstruction and post crash interviews is being conducted to determine the conditions under which speeding and other unsafe actions lead to crashes. [1994-1997 NHTSA/FHWA]

Status: Underway. This study will determine the situational and driver characteristics associated with speeding (and other unsafe actions) when these behaviors lead to crashes. Data will be collected by National Accident Sampling System (NASS) investigators specifically trained to acquire critical driver pre-crash behavior. Project completion 1997.

Activity 1.2. Speed-Roadway Relationships. Speed data will be collected on a variety of roadway characteristics in an attempt to quantify the speed-roadway relationship. Of specific interest is highway type, various levels of service, and roadside development. [1994-1997 FHWA]

Status: Underway. This activity, part of an FHWA contract entitled "Design Consistency Evaluation Module for the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model", began in FY 1995 and will only address two-lane rural roads. Speed data was collected in the summer of 1996. The contractor is now analyzing the data and will develop models that will allow the prediction of vehicle speed (85th percentile) based on the horizontal and vertical alignment of a roadway. When the models are delivered, they will be incorporated into the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model to allow a planner to evaluate proposed or existing highway sections to determine the speeds people will be driving for comparison with the speed for which the highway was designed.

Activity 1.3. Development of a Prototype Driver Model for Highway Design. Human factor studies using driving simulator and instrumented vehicles will be carried out to understand and model how drivers select and control their speed and path on rural two lane highways. [1997-2000 FHWA]

Status. Underway - contract awarded.

Activity 1.4. Effects of Urban Street Design and Roadside Environment on Traffic Speed. Current design speed criteria for low speed urban streets often result in operating speeds higher than the design speed and inappropriate for the urban street environment. Models will be developed for estimating operating speeds for various functional road classes in low speed urban environments based on alignment, grade, cross-section, traffic mix, pedestrian and bicycle traffic, intersection spacing and roadside environment (e.g. parking, setbacks, landscaping, access points). The incorporation of operating speed models in the design process will provide planners and engineers with guidance in selecting street designs that result in actual operating speeds more consistent with road function and speeds intended. [1999-2001 FHWA]

Activity 1.5. A large-scale study will determine the crash risk of speeding. A fleet of vehicles will be equipped with speed monitoring, data, and location recording devices that will enable a determination of when the vehicle is operated above the posted speed limit. Drivers will be classified as to how often, where, and under what conditions (type of roadway, posted limit, time of day, etc.) they speed. This information will then be related to crash experience. Also, a comparison of crash-involved drivers with prevailing speeds at the time and location of crashes will allow a different type of determination of the crash risk of different types of speeding. [1997- 1999 NHTSA]

Status. A pilot study to determine the feasibility of collecting the desired information will be initiated in FY 97. A larger scale two year field data collection effort will follow a successfully completed field test. Completion date 1999.

Activity 1.6. Characteristics of Fast/Slow Drivers--Identify speed issues to determine the motivation for speeding. Information will be collected on when, where, and under what conditions drivers speed; their crash experience and information on the crash; their perception of what constitutes safe speed; their motivation for speeding; and their risk characteristics. [1996 NHTSA/FHWA]

Status.Underway. Contract awarded and work has begun. Will also include changes associated with the repeal of the National Maximum Speed Limit, as well as information on when, where, and under what conditions drivers speed; what motivates drivers to speed and the characteristics of drivers who speed will be studied. The survey will be conducted on a national probability sample of the driving age public. Completion date 1997.

Activity 1.7. Synthesis on Speed Management. A synthesis of relevant speed and speed management research will be prepared to supplement two earlier syntheses. [1996-1997 FHWA/NHTSA]

Status. Underway. A draft report is expected by the end of March 1997. Completion date for this effort is estimated to be April 1997.

Activity 1.8. Report mandated by Congress in the National Highway System (NHS) Designation Act of 1995. This requires "The Secretary, in cooperation with any state that raises its speed limit, shall prepare a study of the costs to the state of deaths and injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes, and the benefits associated with the repeal of the National Maximum Speed Limit." The report is due September 30, 1997.

Status.Underway. Since the NHS legislation also abolished speed monitoring data reporting, information used in preparing the report must be obtained by voluntary state data submissions. Two Federal Register notices regarding proposed methodology have been published.

Activity 1.9. Synthesis of States Laws on Speed and Speed Limits. Prepare a synthesis of the 50 State laws regarding speed and speed limits. [1997-1998 NHTSA]

Status.Completed. NHTSA completed this in-house activity in December 1996 and the report has been distributed to NHTSA and FHWA offices, Governor's Highway Safety Representatives, national safety organizations and other interested highway safety groups. The publication will be updated regularly.

Activity 1.10. Speed Variance. The issue of speed variance will be reviewed and evaluated to determine the safety implications of setting different speed limits for passenger cars and heavy trucks. [ 1997-1998 FHWA]

Status.Delayed. This activity was originally approved for a 1997 FHWA funded effort to investigate differential speed limits. The study will be refocused to review speed variance and safety implications. The study has been resubmitted for approval for a 1998 FHWA funded effort.

Activity 1.11. Effect of Vehicle Speed on Pedestrian Crash Severity. This study will investigate the relationship between vehicle speed and the probability of a pedestrian fatality or serious injury in a pedestrian-motor vehicle crash. The study will review both U.S. and international research in this area. Data from various sources, such as accident reports, hospital records, and results of crash tests with dummies, will be analyzed. The results of this research should provide a factual basis for the premise that reducing vehicle speeds increases pedestrian safety. These findings will provide useful information for speed reduction campaigns and for establishing safe speed limits in areas with pedestrian activity. [1998-1999 FHWA]


2. Speed Zoning

OBJECTIVE: To develop and implement rational criteria for setting speed limits.

Activity 2.1. Preliminary Criteria for Establishing Speed Limits. A preliminary investigation has been completed to identify criteria to be used in establishing speed limits. [1993-1994 FHWA]

Status.Completed. Criteria to use in establishing speed limits were developed in an FHWA-contracted study conducted by Stanley R. Byington (1994). Criteria involved use of the 85th percentile and an outreach program involving the local communities, enforcement, and judicial personnel. The final report (not published) was developed with input from the engineering community only. Because of the single focus, this issue will be revisited by the TRB study (See Activity 2.3).

Activity 2.2. Marketing of Speed Limit Criteria. The preliminary criteria developed to establish speed limits (See Activity 2.1) will be marketed and field tested under a variety of conditions. [1996-1998 FHWA]

Status.Underway. The site selected for field testing will be on US 395, south of Gardnerville, NV, with testing scheduled to begin third quarter of 1997. The posted speeds will be raised from 55 to 65 and 70 mph (85th percentile level). The Nevada Highway Patrol will conduct strict enforcement during the testing. The treatment area will avoid raising limits in a residential and Indian reservation in the area. That area will remain posted at 55 mph and will be used as a control.

Activity 2.3. TRB Evaluation of Speed Setting Criteria. FHWA and NHTSA have contracted with the Transportation Research Board to have a multi disciplinary panel of experts review what criteria should be used to set speed limits. Alternative methods will be appropriately considered. The panel of experts will be: familiar with practices currently used to set speed limits, both in this country and abroad; familiar with new technology; familiar with enforcement issues; familiar with vehicle dynamics; and, be familiar with the human factors issues involved in the speed issue. Based on their review, the panel will recommend criteria for setting and enforcing speed limits. [1997 FHWA/NHTSA]

Status.Underway. The panel has been selected, and the first meeting was conducted in March 1997.

Activity 2.4. Variable Speed Limit Test and Evaluation. Test and evaluate variable speed limits under a variety of conditions and in a variety of situations. This activity will be done as part of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) program.

Status.Underway. A meeting was held in Reno, NV, in April 1996 to discuss the feasibility of testing variable speed limits in the Reno area as part of the ITS. The variable speed limit test and evaluation, a priority technology program project, is part of a larger Nevada state-funded project to install several roadway weather stations. Installation of equipment should begin during the first quarter of 1997 and be fully operational in the following quarter due to software modifications that need to be made.

Activity 2.5. Acceptable Speed Limits From Non-Motorist Perspective. Data will be collected to determine the speed and volume levels that are considered safe and acceptable, and speed zoning from the viewpoint of residents and vulnerable road users such as pedestrians and bicyclists. This effort will provide insight on the different perceptions and perspectives held by motorists, non-motorists, and local residents and determine if an appropriate balance can be reached through improved highway design and speed zones criteria. [1998-1999 FHWA/NHTSA]


3. Technology Development

OBJECTIVE: To identify, develop, and evaluate applicable speed management technologies.

Activity 3.1. Operational Guidelines for Drone Radar. This publication, approved by the Federal Communications Commission, presents specific guidelines and recommendations on the use of drone radar. Use of drone radar is recommended for inclusion in speed enforcement programs. [1993-1997 NHTSA]

Status.Completed. The guidelines have been distributed to states and communities throughout the country. The device is most often used in highway construction zones. DOT continues to support this program.

Activity 3.2. Automated Speed Enforcement (ASE) Demonstration Projects. Demonstration projects will be conducted to maximize general deterrence to speeding, thereby reducing speed limit violations and related crashes. Public acceptance of ASE devices will also be measured. [1995-1996 NHTSA]

Status.Completed. Three statewide demonstration projects were conducted (MI, NJ and WA) without citations being issued. Results validated use of technology and acceptance of use.

Activity 3.3. Minimum Performance Specifications for ASE. Minimum performance specifications and testing protocols will be developed for ASE devices, including photo radar. Specifications will be developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Law Enforcement Standards Laboratory. [1993-1997 NHTSA]

Status.Underway. Draft specifications have undergone peer review and are now undergoing industry review. This project is taking longer than anticipated due to the new technology involved and the complications arising from establishing new specifications. Anticipated completion is October 1997.

Activity 3.4. Field Test of ASE Devices. ASE devices will be field tested and evaluated in several sites and any changes to the minimum performance specifications resulting from this field test will be identified. [1995-1996 NHTSA]

Status.Delayed until 1998, pending completion of Activity 3.3, above.

Activity 3.5. Improved Speed Measuring Devices. New technology will be investigated to determine its applicability to measuring speed with particular applications to variable speed limits. [1996-1998 FHWA/NHTSA]

Status.Completed. This project involved the development of model minimum specifications and testing protocols for LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). NHTSA, working with the International Association of Chiefs of Police and the National Institute for Standards and Technology, has completed this project.

Activity 3.6. Impact of ITS on Speeding. Speed management issues are being addressed in a variety of ITS Operational tests. Several projects incorporate speed advisories based on weather and road conditions (Green Light--OR, Idaho Storm Warning System--ID, Travel-Aid--WA) broadcast via variable message signs. Additionally, the Dynamic Truck Speed Warning for Long Downgrades Operational Test (CO) utilizes weigh-in-motion scales and speed determining loops to assess a truck's speed. Using the weight and configuration information, the safe descent speed is computed, and the vehicle advised of the safe speed via a variable message sign. [1999-2003 FHWA/NHTSA]

Status. Ongoing field tests.

Activity 3.7. Innovative Roadway Design Features. Design alternatives to posting speed limits will be investigated. In addition to the traditional "traffic calming" techniques, new techniques will be investigated. [1998-2000 FHWA]

Status.A new high priority residential program area has been proposed for FY 1998 to address this activity. Future updates will contain specific information to address this area.

Activity 3.8. Traffic Calming State-of-the-Art Report. A state-of-the-art report on current traffic calming practice and experiences is being prepared in cooperation with the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE). A traffic calming web site will be created and a one-week international seminar tour of traffic calming sites will be planned and conducted. A one-day workshop and "train the trainer" toolkit on residential traffic calming will be prepared for the local technical assistance program. [1997 FHWA]

Activity 3.9. Establish testing labs for LIDAR. Independent testing labs will be established, in conjunction with the International Association of Chiefs of Police, to ensure the integrity of the newly developed LIDAR units. [1996-1998 NHTSA]

Status.Underway. One laboratory has been set up and is operational. The process is underway to establish a second testing laboratory.


4. Enforcement

OBJECTIVE: To develop innovative and effective speed enforcement methods, strategies, and programs.

Activity 4.1. Cooperative Law Enforcement Efforts. This outreach activity will encourage states to plan and conduct cooperative law enforcement efforts. The publication "Beyond the Limits: a Law Enforcement Guide to Speed Enforcement" will be used to promote speed enforcement. [1993-1997 NHTSA]

Status.Ongoing. This activity has been combined into Campaign Safe&Sober, a national initiative to reduce speeding and impaired driving, while increasing seat belt use. A number of supporting materials dealing specifically with speed have been produced and distributed nationally.

In FY 97 twenty states were awarded special traffic enforcement program funding to combine multi-jurisdictional enforcement of impaired driving, occupant restraint and speeding violations.

Activity 4.2. State and Regional Enforcement Workshops. This program will continue to provide an outreach component of speed enforcement. Speed enforcement strategies and automated speed enforcement devices are topics presented in these workshops. [1993-1998 NHTSA/FHWA]

Status.Ongoing. These meetings are ongoing and are presented at the request of NHTSA regional offices. Additionally, when specific items are developed to enhance speed enforcement, they are provided to the regions on a timely basis.

Activity 4.3. Field Test--Laser Speed Enforcement Procedures. Test communities will be selected for using laser speed measurement technology and various enforcement strategies will be developed and tested. Successful strategies will be implemented with accompanying publicity and evaluation. [1993-1995 NHTSA]

Status.Completed. This technology was demonstrated in two California cities. The results indicated both lower speeds in the test areas and a reduction in speed- related crashes. Additionally, the enhanced enforcement showed a decline is some crimes, especially in larcenies and thefts.

Activity 4.4. Model Speed Enforcement Program. A model speed enforcement program will be developed for use by law enforcement training centers nationwide. Data collection, problem analysis, enforcement activities, evaluation of countermeasures, and planning a Public Information and Education (PI&E) Campaign will be included in the training. [1994-1995 NHTSA]

Status.Completed. This program was developed in the California municipal speed demonstration project. The model enforcement program was distributed with the report. The document was also distributed nationally in Campaign Safe & Sober planners and is available on the NHTSA Web site.

Activity 4.5. Determination of Enforcement Strategies. Data will be collected from a number of jurisdictions to determine at what speed citations are being issued vis-a-vis roadway type and speed limit. [1995-1996 NHTSA]

Status.Postponed. Lack of funding requires indefinite postponement of this project.

Activity 4.6. Innovative Enforcement Strategies and Demonstration Projects. Several promising speed enforcement strategies will be implemented and evaluated, including comprehensive PI&E campaigns. [1995-1997 NHTSA]

Status. Ongoing. The 4th and 8th Campaign Safe & Sober quarterly planners provided a variety of innovative programs for use is combating speed. These programs were used by law enforcement throughout the country. Other quarterly planners will have pieces directly related to speed enforcement and PI&E.

Activity 4.7. Revise all speed training courses for law enforcement. A core curriculum will be developed with separate modules for RADAR, LIDAR, ASE and VASCAR. This will improve the efficiency of training. [1996-1997 NHTSA]

Status.Underway. Expected completion date is September 1997.

Activity 4.8. Initiate a targeted traffic enforcement of commercial motor vehicles in the 14 States with the most truck-related fatalities. This Office of Motor Carriers program is developing and evaluating comprehensive traffic enforcement strategies for large trucks including speed enforcement. [FHWA 1996]

Status.Ongoing

Activity 4.9. Conduct an aggressive driving enforcement demonstration project in a major urban area to identify: effective, innovative enforcement techniques; possible applications for new enforcement technology; legislative, prosecutorial or judicial needs; and what role, if any, that alcohol and or drugs play in the problem. Speed is expected to play a defining role in the aggressive driver demonstration program. [NHTSA 1998]

Status.Planned for 4th quarter FY 1997.

Activity 4.10. Aggressive Driving Technical Assistance. A mid-level supervisory law enforcement officer from a state that has an operating, effective, aggressive driver countermeasure program will be temporarily assigned to NHTSA. This one year detail will allow the officer to assist in the development of an aggressive driver program and provide technical assistance to state and local law enforcement agencies. [1997 NHTSA]


5. Public Information & Education

OBJECTIVE: To develop methods, strategies, and programs to inform the public, law enforcement agencies, engineers, and the judiciary of the dangers of speeding and the steps being taken to reduce speeding and its consequences.

Activity 5.1. "Speeding. Gets You Nowhere! Fast!" Campaign. Continue this program to increase public awareness of the dangers of driving too fast. Include examples of cases where speed has caused fatal and serious injury crashes. [1994-1997 NHTSA]

Status.Ongoing. "Speeding! Gets You Nowhere! Fast!" materials were replaced with a new campaign theme, "Speed Shatters Life", focusing on injury consequences. Multimedia print, television and radio public service announcements (PSAs) for English and Spanish language audiences were developed and distributed. In 1997, PSA and print will target the high risk group of young drivers, principally male, using PSAs with aggressive driving themes. This media program will continue for several more years.

Activity 5.2. Effective Messages and Marketing Methods. Develop effective messages and marketing methods including draft editorials, features on speed, information on speed to be distributed with license renewals, etc. [1994-1998 NHTSA/FHWA]

Status.Ongoing. This task has taken a much larger scope and is an integral part of Campaign Safe & Sober. Speed related materials have been developed and distributed to a much wider group of highway safety advocacy groups, the enforcement community, legislators, motor vehicle administrators, and other interested parties. Aggressive driving is an emphasis area in current planners.

Activity 5.3. Law Enforcement Workshops. Conduct PI&E workshops to train law enforcement public information officers how to plan, develop and implement effective PI&E programs to counter speeding. [1994 NHTSA]

Status.Completed. The Law Enforcement Workshop has been completed and is currently being taught around the country, coordinated by state Highway Safety Offices.

Activity 5.4. Innovative Educational/Public Information Campaigns. Using information from driver and DMV attitude surveys, develop and field test public information programs designed to educate and inform drivers of the need to comply with speed limits. These programs will be tested in several locations. [1996 NHTSA/FHWA]

Status.Postponed until completion of Activity 1.6.

Activity 5.5. Educating the Courts. Using focus groups and surveys, develop a training package to be used for members of the judiciary to inform them of the comprehensive aspects of speed management including setting speed limits, enforcement strategies and activities, and the impact of speeding on highway safety. The focus groups and surveys will be used to determine judicial attitudes on speed limits, enforcement strategies, and the safety impacts of speeding. [1998 FHWA/NHTSA]

Status.Postponed. Lack of funding requires indefinite postponement.

Activity 5.6. Legislative Fact Sheet Speed. A fact sheet detailing key facts for use in legislative activities. This is one of a series of legislative fact sheets produced by NHTSA and will be updated each year. [1995 NHTSA]

Status.Completed. The document has been replaced by a statistical fact sheet, listed under Activity 5.7.

Activity 5.7. Speed Fact Sheet. The National Center for Statistics and Analysis will develop the first publication detailing information on speed involvement in traffic fatalities. The publication will be updated each year. [1995 NHTSA]

Status. Ongoing. Statistics for calendar years 1994 and 1995 have been produced and distributed each year. The document is available on the NHTSA and FHWA Web sites.

Activity 5.8. Capital Beltway Aggressive Driver Project. The FHWA's Office of Motor Carriers will support the Maryland State Police effort to use radar/LIDAR in conjunction with video technology to identify speeders and other aggressive drivers. Because of the difficulty of effecting traffic stops on the Capitol Beltway, vehicle imaging will enable the State Police to record violations, identify owners, and solicit their future cooperation and compliance. [1997/1998 FHWA/NHTSA]

Status. Underway. Equipment development and acquisition is currently underway. It is anticipated that the program will be operational by July 1997.

Activity 5.9. Study the effectiveness, benefits, and costs of traffic enforcement on unsafe practices, including speeding, as a means of reducing the frequency, and severity of commercial motor vehicle crashes, and as a means of improving compliance with State and local traffic codes.The project will analyze the impact of traffic law enforcement on crash reduction; assess the acceptance of this enforcement strategy as part of the MCSAP in the law enforcement community; and evaluate whether traffic enforcement targeted at high-risk locations is a useful strategy in improving highway safety. [1997-1998 FHWA Office of Motor Carriers]

Status.Underway.

Activity 5.10. Provide formal training for legislators, judges, prosecutors, and law enforcement personnel through a Judicial/Executive Overview Program to ensure appropriate and uniform adjudication of commercial motor vehicle safety regulation violations, including speeding. [1996- 1998 FHWA Office of Motor Carriers]

Status. Ongoing. 38 State presenters have been trained. An additional training course for presenters is scheduled for FY 1997. The course criteria curricula are currently being updated by the National Judicial College, the National Association of Prosecutor Coordinators, and the International Association of Chiefs of Police.


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