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Stalking

Guide No.22 (2004)

by the National Center for Victims of Crime

The Problem of Stalking

This guide reviews the problem of stalking and the factors that contribute to it. It then identifies a series of questions to help you analyze your local problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem, and what is known about them from evaluative research and police practice.

Defining Stalking

Stalking creates uncertainty, instills fear, and can completely disrupt lives. It can involve severeeven lethalviolence. Stalking involves a pattern of overtly criminal and/or apparently innocent behavior that makes victims fear for themselves or others.

Stalking is distinguishable from many other types of crime in two important ways. First, it entails repeat victimization of a person the offender targetsit is, by its very nature, a series of acts, rather than a single incident. Second, it is partly defined by its impact on the victim. While legal definitions of stalking vary from state to state, the following is a useful general definition:

A course of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person fear. 1

Prevalence and Nature of Stalking

Stalking is widespread. Nearly one in 12 women and one in 45 men are stalked at least once in their lifetime. 2 It is estimated that more than a million women and nearly half a million men are stalked in the United States each year.3 The overwhelming majority (78 percent) of victims are women, and the majority of offenders (87 percent) are men.4

Most victims know their stalkers. Even though we often hear reports of fans stalking celebrities, survey evidence indicates that fewer than a quarter of female victims and a third of male victims are stalked by strangers.5 Nearly 60 percent of female victims and 30 percent of male victims are stalked by current or former intimate partners.6 In intimate-partner cases, fewer than half of stalking incidents occur after the relationship ends.7 Most of the time, the stalking occurs during the relationship.8,

† In cases involving intimate partners, 21 percent of victims surveyed reported that stalking occurred during the relationship, 36 percent reported that it occurred both during and after the relationship, and 43 percent reported that it started after the relationship.

Stalking and domestic violence intersect in a variety of ways. Research indicates that 81 percent of women stalked by an intimate have been physically assaulted by that person.9 Thirty-one percent of women stalked by an intimate have been sexually assaulted by that person.10 Offenders who stalk former intimate partners are more likely to have physically or sexually assaulted them before the relationship ended.11

Stalking is often a feature of relationships involving domestic violence.12 Like domestic violence, it is a crime of power and control. In one study about stalking and pre­stalking relationships, over 50 percent of the women were psychologically abused, 65 percent reported physical abuse, and 8.6 percent experienced sexual abuse during their relationship.13 If stalking is defined as a course of conduct that intimidates or frightens the victim, then relationships involving domestic violence also involve stalking.

Both domestic violence and stalking are linked to lethal violence. Research has revealed that one-third of women killed each year in the United States die at the hands of a current or former intimate.14 It is estimated that 25 to 35 percent of stalking cases involve violence.15 And when stalking leads to violence, it is often a precursor to lethal violence. Studies show that stalking precedes an exceedingly high proportion of homicides by intimates.16 In over 75 percent of completed and attempted female homicides by intimates, the offenders stalked the victims in the year before the offense.17

Victims report only about half of stalking incidents to the police.18 Generally, those who do not report do not think the matter is criminal, do not think the police can help them, or fear that reporting will make the stalker even more dangerous.19 Twenty percent of victims who reported stalking stated that the police did not act regarding their complaints.20 Other victims may not report incidents because they may minimize the risk a stalker poses or blame themselves for the stalker's behavior.

State and Federal Anti-Stalking Laws

The first stalking law was passed in California in 1990. Since then, increasing awareness about stalking's impact has led legislatures in all 50 states to pass stalking laws. While legislation is critical, laws alone accomplish little without clear anti-stalking policies and effective enforcement. Yet most police agencies across the country have not adopted distinct stalking-intervention protocols and procedures.

† You can find state stalking statutes on the National Center for Victims of Crime's Stalking Resource Center website, www.ncvc.org/src.

Stalking laws vary from state to state, but they share certain basic elements. Statutes generally define stalking in terms of a course of conduct or pattern of behavior that would cause a reasonable person to fear bodily injury or death for himself/herself or a member of his/her immediate family. Similarly, under most state laws, two or more incidents are required to establish a course of conduct. Because state laws vary, you should consult with your local prosecutor regarding your state's stalking law to be clear about what evidence is necessary to build a stalking case. In addition to specific stalking statutes, numerous other state and local laws relating to a wide variety of crimes and the investigation or prevention of crime may be relevant in stalking cases. These include laws governing:

Federal statutes specifically relating to or applicable to stalking may provide further options for prosecuting stalkers.

† Relevant federal laws include Full Faith and Credit (U.S.C.§ 2265), Interstate Stalking (U.S.C.§ 2261), Interstate Domestic Violence (U.S.C.§ 2261), Interstate Violation of a Protection Order (U.S.C.§ 2262), Federal Domestic Violence Firearm Prohibitions (U.S.C.§ 922), Interstate Communications (U.S.C.§ 875), and Harassing Telephone Calls in Interstate Communications [U.S.C.§ 233(a)(1)(C)].

Related Problems

Other related problems and issues not directly addressed by this guide include:

Factors Contributing to Stalking

Understanding the factors that contribute to stalking will help you frame your own local analysis questions, determine good effectiveness measures, recognize key intervention points, and select appropriate responses.

Stalking Behaviors

Stalking, by definition, is not a one-time act but a course of conduct. It may involve a mix of patently criminal acts and acts that, in isolation, would seem nonthreatening. It is the pattern and context of these criminal and noncriminal acts that constitute stalking.

Stalking often includes:

Other common stalking behaviors include:

Types of Stalkers

While stalkers come from different backgrounds and have different personalities, researchers have developed several widely accepted typologies of them. It is important to emphasize that, while stalker typologies can be helpful, they are only general classifications. Whenever possible, a properly trained professional should conduct a threat assessment. Individual stalkers may not precisely fit any single category, and often exhibit characteristics associated with more than one category. However, the typology can alert investigators and victim advocates to certain general characteristics exhibited by similar stalkers, and help them with threat assessment and safety planning.

One widely accepted typology of stalkers21 is based on the stalker's underlying motives, and includes the following categories:

Simple obsessional. This is the most common type. The stalker is usually a male, and the victim an ex-spouse, ex­lover, or former boss. The stalking sometimes results from the stalker's feeling the victim has mistreated him or her. In intimate relationships, the stalking frequently begins before a breakup.

Love obsessional. The stalker is a stranger or casual acquaintance to the victim, but is obsessed and begins a campaign of harassment to make the victim aware of his or her existence. This type often stalks a celebrity or public figure, but can also stalk a noncelebrity.

Erotomania. The stalker falsely believes that the victim is in love with him or her, and that, but for some external obstacle or interference, they would be together. The victim may be rich or famous, or in a position of power (e.g., a movie star, employer, or political figure). In this situation, the stalker could also pose a great risk to those close to the victim (e.g., a spouse or lover perceived to be "in the way").

False victimization syndrome. This is extremely rare and involves someone who consciously or subconsciously wants to play the role of victim. He or she may make up a complex tale, claiming to be a stalking victim. In such cases, the would-be victim is sometimes the actual stalker, and the alleged offender is the real victim.

Another typology used to classify stalkers identifies them by their relationship to the victim.22 This typology divides stalkers into two basic categories: intimate and nonintimate. The following is a brief description of these categories:

† The typology terms actually used are "domestic" and "nondomestic." "Intimate" and "nonintimate" are used here for clarity.

Intimate. A former relationship exists between the stalker and the victim. There is likely a history of abuse, such as domestic violence, by the stalker. The stalker often seeks to reestablish a relationship the victim has tried to end.

Nonintimate. The stalker has no interpersonal relationship with the victim. He or she may choose the victim after a brief encounter, or simply after observing the victim. The victim is often unable to identify the stalker when he or she first becomes aware of being stalked. This type is subdivided into two categories:

Again, stalkers often exhibit behaviors from more than one typology. The typologies are an overview, and you should never use them as a substitute for a thorough threat assessment.

Stalkers are, by their very nature, obsessive and dangerous.23 Regardless of typology, you should always consider stalkers capable of killing their victims. Anyone the stalker perceives as impeding his or her contact with the victim, including police, prosecutors, and advocates, is also at risk. Some stalkers seek union with their victims through murder-suicide.24 Any suicidal statements or gestures the stalker makes should serve as an indication that the stalker is a high-risk threat. You should also examine the stalker's background for depression, psychiatric hospitalizations, and other indications that he or she may be suicidal.

Stalking's Impact on Victims

Unlike the case with many crimes, the legal definition of stalking covers not only the offender's behavior but also the effects on the victim. The victim's psychological responses and the changes the victim makes in his or her life as a result of stalking can all be used as evidence of the fear the offender has caused.

Stalking's impact is often wide-ranging, severe, and psychologically traumatic. Many victims feel constantly on alert, vulnerable, out of control, stressed, and anxious. Dealing with stalking can consume all their energy. They may experience a loss of trust, long-term emotional distress, and significant disruption of everyday living.25 Many seek psychological counseling.26 Victims' symptoms tend to worsen with each new incident, and may be compounded by concerns about the effects on their children and other secondary victims.27

Stalking can also trigger a wide variety of behavioral reactions. Many victims take steps to avoid being followed and spied on. They alter their normal routines, avoid going out alone, and give up leisure activities. To protect themselves, they may screen all telephone calls (at home and work) and change their telephone number, email and postal addresses, driver's license, and social security number.28, More drastic action may include temporary or permanent relocation. They may move to another state or try to change their identity, often uprooting children in the process, leaving behind close friends and relatives, and abandoning careers.

† While victims can change their social security number, some victims have had problems as a result (for example, establishing credit or prior employment history, or getting a passport). Therefore, this option should be weighed carefully.

When the criminal justice system fails to protect victims from stalking, it makes it that much harder for them to recover from its effects.29

The Challenges of Policing Stalking

Stalking can be difficult to recognize, investigate, assess, and prevent for many reasons, including the following:

Understanding Your Local Problem

The information provided above is only a generalized description of stalking. You must combine the basic facts with a more specific understanding of your local problem. Analyzing the local problem carefully will help you design a more effective response strategy.

Asking the Right Questions

The following are some critical questions you should ask when analyzing your stalking problem. Your answers to these questions will help you choose the most appropriate set of responses later on.

Incidents

Victims

Offenders

Current Responses

Measuring Your Effectiveness

Measurement allows you to determine to what degree your efforts have succeeded, and suggests how you might modify your responses if they are not producing the intended results. You should take measures of your problem before you implement responses, to determine how serious the problem is, and after you implement them, to determine whether they have been effective. (For more detailed guidance on measuring effectiveness, see the companion guide to this series, Assessing Responses to Problems: An Introductory Guide for Police Problem-Solvers.)

The following are potentially useful measures of the effectiveness of responses to stalking:

Responses to the Problem of Stalking

Your analysis of your local problem should give you a better understanding of the factors contributing to it. Once you have analyzed your local problem and established a baseline for measuring effectiveness, you should consider possible strategies to address the problem.

The following response strategies provide a foundation of ideas for addressing your particular problem. These strategies are drawn from a variety of sources, including research studies, police surveys, and police reports. Several of these strategies may apply to your community's problem. It is critical that you tailor responses to local circumstances, and that you can justify each response based on reliable analysis. You should handle each case individually, based on the particular circumstances. A thorough threat assessment can be invaluable in formulating an appropriate response. In most cases, an effective strategy will involve implementing several different responses. Law enforcement responses alone are seldom effective in reducing or solving the problem. Do not limit yourself to considering what police can do: give careful consideration to who else in your community shares responsibility for the problem and can help police better respond to it.

  1. Identifying stalking cases early. Because every stalking case is potentially lethal, the sooner police identify stalking, the greater the chance of protecting the victim from physical harm. Stalking behavior commonly escalates over time, with stalkers becoming increasingly obsessive and more willing to become violent. You can more easily identify stalking cases by asking victims if there are other related incidents, reviewing incident reports each day, examining protective orders for language suggesting repeated behavior, and reviewing the calls for service history.
  2. Getting effective victim input. You should actively engage victims in investigations. They can provide ongoing information about the contacts the stalker makes in person, through voice mail, in letters, in faxes, in email, or through unwanted gifts, and describe the fear they feel as a result. Victims' family members, neighbors, employers, coworkers, and others are also potentially important witnesses. They are often very aware of the stalking behavior and can corroborate victims' statements.
  3. Ensuring that victims receive consistent, professional support services throughout the criminal justice process. Counselors and victim advocates can help victims be effective witnesses and take proper steps to protect themselves. They can maintain frequent contact with victims and stress the importance of carefully documenting all stalking incidents; help victims create and maintain stalking logs, devise safety plans, and develop supportive networks; assess victim needs and help victims to access housing, health, and mental health services; and help victims weigh the advantages and disadvantages of civil protection orders. In addition, victim advocates can help police develop more effective anti-stalking policies and train officers to apply them. The Domestic Violence Intervention Project in Alexandria, Va., created a support group for stalking victims to address their particular safety concerns and emotional needs. The project developed "stalking sacks" to help victims build their cases, as well as provide for their safety. Sacks include stalking logs, notebooks, disposable cameras, latex gloves, plastic bags, books about stalking, microcassette recorders, cell phones, personal alarms, pepper spray, and copies of the stalking statute, among other items. Some stalking victims may have special needs. Such victims include those with mental illness, substance abuse problems, or disabilities; the elderly; ethnic and religious minorities; those with immigration issues; those who are illiterate or cannot speak or read English; and those being stalked by someone of the same gender.
  4. Using a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach. Stalking victims often require a broad range of services. A collaborative approach encourages quicker responses from the most appropriate providers. Among the community resources that may be necessary to address stalking are the following:

    The San Diego Stalking Strike Force was established in the mid­1990s. It comprises police officials, prosecutors, judges, victim advocates, and mental health professionals. It promotes stalking awareness, makes training recommendations, and develops model protocols for stalker treatment programs. Its Stalking Case Assessment Team, which includes police, prosecutors, victim/witness advocates, probation officials, and mental health professionals, meets regularly to address problems reported by the police or stalking victims.

    • domestic violence shelters,
    • mental health treatment providers,
    • housing associations,
    • schools and colleges,
    • faith-based programs,
    • neighborhood watch organizations, and
    • victim advocacy organizations.
    The various law enforcement agencies in your area should also develop systems for sharing information and coordinating responses when stalking occurs in multiple jurisdictions. Police should work with major employers to make sure they have workplace violence policies and protocols in place and offer support to employees who are being victimized. Coworkers and supervisors of stalking victims should know what to do if stalking behavior occurs at work. In addition, telephone and Internet service providers should have policies and protocols that protect victims' personal information and block stalkers' ability to contact victims.
  5. Enforcing all relevant laws. Stalking statutes should be enforced in conjunction with all other relevant laws. Police can rely on laws against domestic violence, phone harassment, vandalism, voyeurism, trespass, court-order violations, and many other crimes to hold stalkers accountable and protect victims. Sometimes it is just as effective to charge under a non-stalking statute. For instance, violations of protection orders often allow prosecutors to have supervision conditions imposed on offenders until stalking cases are ready for prosecution, and to secure convictions. In all cases, all relevant laws should be considered.
  6. Assessing the threat the stalker poses. Threat assessment is crucial to controlling stalking.30 You should assess each case individually. Be alert to offender characteristics and behaviors that suggest the stalker may become violent. 31 Prior sexual intimacy, prior criminal convictions, and substance abuse are among the strongest predictors of stalker violence. 32 Former intimates often know their victims' daily routines and schedules, and have special access to their victims (e.g., through child custody arrangements). Thus they often pose the most significant physical risks to victims. Other factors to consider include explicit threats, symbolic violence, personality disorders and the presence or absence of a major mental disorder. 33 Former intimates who stalk often suffer from personality disorders but do not necessarily suffer from major mental disorders. The absence of a major mental disorder can also be an indication that the offender is capable of formulating an organized plan. For this reason, the mental health of an offender should be considered. In addition to helping police prioritize cases and devise case strategy, a thorough threat assessment can provide valuable information regarding bail issues, conditions of release, sentencing, and probation, and provide the basis for mental health interventions such as involuntary hospitalization.

    Former intimates can also harm their victims in nonphysical ways. For example, knowing victims' bank account and social security numbers can help them destroy their victims' credit through methods such as identity theft.

  7. Warning and arresting stalkers. Some stalkers may not know their behavior is criminal; others may believe their behavior is acceptable due to their relationship with the victim. You should firmly inform offenders about what behavior constitutes stalking in your state. When probable cause exists, you should promptly arrest stalkers. (Following arrest, prosecutors should seek bail and sentencing conditions requiring supervision of stalkers and restricting their contact with victims.)
  8. Adopting a graduated-response stalking protocol. A graduated-response stalking protocol determines the appropriate police intervention level based on the particular incident and its context in the pattern of stalking behavior. It also allocates resources to protect victims and control offenders. The following illustrates how such a protocol works. A complete discussion about developing an effective stalking protocol can be found in a companion document prepared by the National Center for Victims of Crime (2002).[Full text]
    Intervention Level Actions to Protect Victims Actions to Control Offenders
    Level 1 First police awareness
    • Gather information.
    • Help the victim develop and implement a safety and implement a safety plan.
    • Help the victim obtain a protective order.
    • Refer the victim to support services.
    • Deliver the first official warning to the offender, explaining the law and policy.
    • Check whether the offender has prior arrests and convictions.
    • Arrest the offender if probable cause exists.
    • If applicable, contact the offender's probation or parole officer and enlist his or her help.
    • Refer the offender to counseling or other services that may control his or her behavior.
    • Conduct a threat assessment (referring to the next level, if appropriate).
    Level 2 Second incident, warranting stalking charges or indicating an escalation in behavior
    • Increase the victim's personal and home security by providing him or her with a cell phone, a personal alarm, or video surveillance.
    • If the victim consents, consider enlisting the aid of family members, neighbors, coworkers, and community watch associations.
    • Continue using victim advocates to update the safety plan when appropriate, as well as explore safe locations for the victim should he or she need temporary housing.
    • Arrest the offender under the stalking statute or other appropriate statutes.
    • Revise the threat assessment, and use it to oppose or influence bail.
    • Increase offender monitoring.
    • Begin surveillance of the offender.
    • Use technology to identify the offender's locations and actions.
    • Consider other interventions such as psychiatric evaluation and/or civil commitment of the offender.
    Level 3 Subsequent incidents
    • Increase security and safety systems to the highest level. Continue helping the victim update the safety plan. Refer the victim to a "safehouse" or other shelter unknown to the offender.
    • Formulate a plan with the victim for responding to an emergency situation.
    • Increase prosecution and surveillance efforts. Monitor the offender's activity whenever possible.
    • Arrest the offender or deter him or her in any way possible, including civil commitment.
    • Continue reevaluating and revising the threat assessment.
    • Plan for a possible emergency, such as violence at the victim's workplace, home, or school; violence toward anyone perceived as blocking the offender's access to the victim; and other scenarios, such as a possible homicide/suicide or hostage­ taking/barricade.
    Level 4 Emergency intervention
    • Implement the emergency response plan.
    • Use all available means to secure the victim's safety, including emergency response teams, if necessary.
    • Document the reasons for implementing this response.
    • Implement the emergency response plan.
    • Use all available means to eliminate the threat to the victim, the public, and those responding to the situation.
    • Document the reasons for implementing this response.

    Although the protocol specifies interventions based on the number of incidents, it also allows for more intensive interventions, depending on the severity of the case. For example, a case involving a violent attack by a stalker may be assigned a Level 3 response, even if the assault is the first incident.

  9. Monitoring stalkers and gathering evidence. Surveilling stalkers enables police to gather direct evidence of stalking behavior, and provides corroboration for victim accounts of similar incidents. Electronic monitoring helps ensure that the offender physically stays away from the victim while on bail or other conditional release.
  10. Providing victims with a single point of contact. To the extent possible, stalking victims should be assigned a single point of contact in the police department (and a single point of contact in the prosecutor's office, if criminal charges are filed), to ensure that the case file contains all relevant information and the victim receives consistent advice. In addition, all police officers should be trained in stalking investigation and response so they can properly assist victims should the single point of contact be unavailable.

Summary of Responses

The table below summarizes the responses to stalking, the mechanism by which they are intended to work, the conditions under which they ought to work best, and some factors you should consider before implementing a particular response. It is critical that you tailor responses to local circumstances, and that you can justify each response based on reliable analysis. In most cases, an effective strategy will involve implementing several different responses. Law enforcement responses alone are seldom effective in reducing or solving the problem.

General Responses
# Response How It Works Works Best If... Considerations
1 Identifying stalking cases early Allows the system to address stalking before cases escalate …the police department implements a clear stalking protocol and trains all officers in the screening of stalking cases Requires the department to identify and track repeat crimes
2 Getting effective victim input Provides police with the information necessary to apprehend, build prosecutable cases against, and deter stalkers …victims trust police Police should also solicit input from the victim's family members, neighbors, employer, coworkers, and others
3 Ensuring that victims receive consistent, professional support services throughout the criminal justice process Victims create safety plans and receive support from advocates, thereby ensuring victim safety and support while saving the police department's manpower resources …the department encourages the use of advocates and officers are trained to use them in stalking cases Requires the availability of advocates trained and experienced in safety planning
4 Using a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach Gathers service providers and community resources to coordinate a wide-ranging response; ensures that the victim's personal information and privacy are protected …all applicable service providers and stakeholders are included in the problem- solving effort Requires that all involved develop working relationships and coordinate together
5 Enforcing all relevant laws Deters and/or incapacitates the stalker …police recognize the stalking pattern early on Requires cooperation from prosecutors
6 Assessing the threat the stalker poses Identifies the stalking motives and threat levels, and enables the development of an effective response for the particular victim …police gather sufficient reliable information on which to assess the threat Requires the commitment of investigative resources to properly assess threats in individual cases
7 Warning and arresting stalkers Deters and/or incapacitates stalkers …stalkers are genuinely unaware that their conduct is illegal and/or threatening, and police recognize the threat stalkers pose Requires cooperation from prosecutors
8 Adopting a graduated- response stalking protocol Tailors the official response to the threat each stalking incident poses, thereby increasing the likelihood of effectiveness while conserving scarce resources …there are adequate resources available to respond to stalking, and sufficient information in each case to tailor the appropriate response Protocol should be sufficiently flexible to adapt to the circumstances of each case
9 Monitoring stalkers and gathering evidence Improves the development of criminal cases against stalkers …the police department prioritizes stalking cases to make officers and other resources available Surveillance of suspects can be labor-intensive
10 Providing victims with a single point of contact Enhances the quantity and quality of the information victims provide to police; enhances victims' confidence in police and willingness to assist with prosecutions …the contact is provided with all relevant information to assist victims All police officers should receive basic training in stalking

Endnotes

[1] Adapted from National Criminal Justice Association (1993). [Full text]

[2] Tjaden and Thoennes (1998).

[3] Tjaden and Thoennes (1998).

[4] Tjaden and Thoennes (1998).

[5] Tjaden and Thoennes (1998).

[6] Tjaden and Thoennes (1998).

[7] Tjaden and Thoennes (1998).

[8] Tjaden and Thoennes (1998).

[9] Tjaden and Thoennes (1998).

[10] Tjaden and Thoennes (1998).

[11] Tjaden and Thoennes (1998).

[12] Tjaden and Thoennes (1998).

[13] Brewster (2003).[Abstract only]

[14] Bureau of Justice Statistics (2001).

[15] Meloy (1998).

[16] McFarlane et al. (1999).

[17] McFarlane et al. (1999).

[18] Tjaden and Thoennes (2000).

[19] Tjaden and Thoennes (2000).

[20] Tjaden and Thoennes (1998).

[21] Meloy (1998).

[22] Wright et al. (1996).

[23] Meloy (2002). [Full text]

[24] Meloy (1998).

[25] Mullen, Pathe, and Purcell (2000b).

[26] Tjaden and Thoennes (1998).

[27] Mullen, Pathe, and Purcell (2000b).

[28] U.S. Department of Justice (2001).

[29] U.S. Department of Justice (2001).

[30] Fein, Vossekuil, and Holden (1995).

[31] Meloy (2002). [Full text]

[32] Meloy (2002). [Full text]

[33] Meloy (2002). [Full text]

References

Brewster, M. (2003). "Power and Control Dynamics in Prestalking and Stalking Situations." Journal of Family Violence 18(4): 207-217. [Abstract only]

Bureau of Justice Statistics (2001). Homicide Trends in the U.S., Intimate Partner Homicide. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Fein, R., B. Vossekuil, and G. Holden (1995). Threat Assessment: An Approach to Prevent Targeted Violence. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

McFarlane, J., Campbell, J., Wilt, S., Sachs, C., Ulrich, Y., Xu, X.. (1999). "Stalking and Intimate Partner Femicide." Homicide Studies 3(4):300-316.

Meloy, J. (2002). "Stalking and Violence." In J. Boon and L. Sheridan (eds.), Stalking and Psychosexual Obsession: Psychological Perspectives for Prevention, Policing, and Treatment. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [Full text]

(1998). The Psychology of Stalking: Clinical and Forensic Perspectives. New York: Academic Press.

Mullen, P., M. Pathe, and R. Purcell (2000a). "Same­Gender Stalking." Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 28(2):191-197.

__ (2000b). Stalkers and Their Victims. New York: Cambridge University Press.

National Center for Victims of Crime (2002). Creating an Effective Stalking Protocol. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. Accessible at [Full text]

National Criminal Justice Association (1993). Project to Develop a Model Anti-Stalking Code for States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. [Full text]

Tjaden, P., and N. Thoennes (2000). "Stalking in America: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Police Response." In C. Brito and E. Gratto (eds.), Problem-Oriented Policing: Crime-Specific Problems, Critical Issues, and Making POP Work. Washington, D.C.: Police Executive Research Forum.

___ (1998). Stalking in America: Findings From the National Violence Against Women Survey. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

U.S. Department of Justice (2001). Stalking and Domestic Violence: Report to Congress. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice.

Wright, J., Burgess, A., Burgess, A., Laszlo, A., McCrary, G., and Douglas, J. (1996). "A Typology of Interpersonal Stalking." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 11(4): 487-502.

Related POP Projects

Important!

The quality and focus of these submissions vary considerably. With the exception of those submissions selected as winners or finalists, these documents are unedited and are reproduced in the condition in which they were submitted. They may nevertheless contain useful information or may report innovative projects.

The Stalking and Harassment of Public Figures: A Community-Focussed Preventative Policing Approach, Metropolitan Police Service (London, UK), 2010