Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Endnotes

[1] Walsh (1976).

[2] Sutton (1998), p. 68.

[3] Plate (1975); Sutton (1995).

[4] Kerckhoff and Kleinknecht (1980); Walsh (1976).

[5] Steffensmeier and Ulmer (2005).

[6] Sutton (2008, 2003a, 1998).

[7] Steffensmeier and Ulmer (2005).

[8] Walsh (1976); Pennell (1979); Weiner, Besachuch, and Stephens (1981); Harris, Hale, and Uglow (2003); Hale et al. (2004); Sutton (2008, 1995).

[9] Reuter (1990, 1985); Venkatesh (2006); Rosenfeld (2009).

[10] Tremblay, Clermont, and Cusson (1994).

[11] Sutton (1998).

[12] Steffensmeier and Ulmer (2005).

[13] Sutton (1998); Felson (2002).

[14] Sutton (2008, 2003a).

[15] Sutton (1998).

[16] Sutton (2002).

[17] Sutton (2008, 2003a, 1998).

[18] Johnson, Natarajan, and Sanabria (1993); Clarke (1999).

[19] Sutton (2003a); Gill et al. (2004); McKinnon (2006); Nahmias (2006); NACS (2007); Talamo (2007); Reno (2008); Finucane (2009).

[20] Clarke (1999).

[21] Tremblay, Clermont, and Cusson (1994); Sutton and Schneider (1999); Gill et al. (2004).

[22] Sutton (2008); Sutton, Schneider, and Hetherington (2001): Schneider (2005b, 2003).

[23] Pease (2002).

[24] Sutton (1998); Felson (2002).

[25] Langworthy and Lebeau (1992); Sutton (1998).

[26] Sutton (2008, 2003a).

[27] Steffensmeier (1986); Sutton (2008).

[28] Sutton, Hodgkinson, and Levi (2008).

[29] Pengelly (1996).

[30] Henry (1981); Hobbs (1989); Foster (1990); Sutton (1998).

[31] Henry (1981, 1978); Parker, Bakx, and Newcombe (1988); Hobbs (1989); Foster (1990); Sutton (2003b, 1995); Clarke (1999); Felson (2002).

[32] Bennett, Holloway, and Williams (2001).

[33] Sutton (2008, 2003a, 1998).

[34] Struzzi (1998).

[35] Sutton, Hodgkinson, and Levi (2008).

[36] Ferman, Henry, and Hoyman (1987); Auld, Dorn, and South (1986).

[37] Sutton (2008, 2003a).

[38] Sutton (1998).

[39] Eck (1994).

[40] Blakey and Goldsmith (1976).

[41] Steffensmeier and Ulmer (2005).

[42] Lewis (2006).

[43] Webby (2008).

[44] Lanter (1999); Steffensmeier and Ulmer (2005).

[45] Steffensmeier and Ulmer (2005).

[46] Cromwell, Olson, and Avery (1993); Sutton (1998).

[47] Cromwell, Olson, and Avery (1993).

[48] Stevenson and Forsythe (1998); Sutton (1998).

[49] Wright and Decker (1994).

[50] Sutton, Schneider, and Hetherington (2001).

[51] Hale et al. (2004).

[52] Ekblom, Law, and Sutton (1996).

[53] Hale et al. (2004); Pengelly (1997).

[54] Walsh (1976).

[55] Hale et al. (2004).

[56] Sutton (2008); Sutton et al. (2007); Hale et al. (2004); Harris, Hale, and Uglow (2003).

[57] Walsh (1976); Weiner, Besachuch, and Stephens (1981).

[58] Harris, Hale, and Uglow (2003).

[59] Walsh (1976).

[60] Steffensmeier and Ulmer (2005); Sutton (2008, 2003a, 1998).

[61] Hale et al. (2004).

[62] Talamo et al. (2007).

[63] Hale et al. (2004).

[64] Larsen (n.d.); Justice Technology Information Network (2007).

[65] Sutton (2008).

[66] Weiner, Besachuch, and Stephens (1981).

[67] Schmitt (2003).

[68] Webby (2008).

[69] Sutton et al. (2007).

[70] Harris, Hale, and Uglow (2003).

[71] Eckersley (2003).

[72] Whitehead and Gray (1998); Sutton, Schneider, and Hetherington (2001).

[73] Skelton (2005).

[74] Webby (2008).

[75] Langworthy and LeBeau (1992); (Sutton 2008, 2003a).

[76] Langworthy (1989); Langworthy and LeBeau (1992); Pennell (1979). For contrary evidence, see Raub (1984).

[77] Langworthy and LeBeau (1992).

[78] Sutton (2003a, 1998); Felson (2002).

[79] For example, see Cotter and Burrows (1981).

[80] Smith, Sheridan, and Yurcisin (1991).

[81] Knutsson (1984) ; Sutton (1998); Harris, Hale, and Uglow (2003); Hale et al. (2004); Bent Society (2008).

[82] Whitehead and Gray (1998).

[83] Sutton (2003b, 2008)

[84] Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate (2004).

[85] Schneider (2005a).