Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Endnotes

[1] Goldstein (1990).

[2] See Goldstein (1977) and Newburn (1999)[Full Text] for discussions of police corruption generally, and the special hazards of policing prostitution.

[3] Benson and Matthews (1995); Hodgson (1997); Matthews (1993)[Full Document] [Briefing Note]; van Gelder and Kaplan (1992).

[4] Melrose (2003).

[5] Maloney and Mobley (2002)[Full Text].

[6] McIntyre (2002)[Full Text].

[7] Cohen (1980); May, Edmunds, and Hough (1999) [Full Document] [Briefing Note]; van Gelder and Kaplan (1992).

[8] Romero-Daza, Weeks, and Singer (2003); Dalla, Zia, and Kennedy (2003); Kurtz et al. (2004); Penfold et al. (2004); Surrat et al. (2004).

[9] Church et al. (2001); Penfold et al. (2004).

[10] Kurtz et al. (2004).

[11] Kennedy, Gorzalka, and Yuille (2004)[Full Text]; Monto (2004); Hughes (2004)[Full Text].

[12] Monto (2004).

[13] Weitzer (2000); Brooks-Gordon and Gelsthorpe (2003a).

[14] Monto (2004).

[15] Brooks-Gordon and Gelsthorpe (2003b).

[16] Hughes (2004)[Full Text].

[17] Williamson and Cluse-Tolar (2002).

[18] Home Office (2004)[Full Text]; Williamson and Cluse-Tolar (2002).

[19] Williamson and Cluse-Tolar (2002).

[20] Cohen (1980).

[21] Hubbard and Sanders (2003).

[22] May, Edmunds, and Hough (1999) [Full Document] [Briefing Note]; Sterk and Elifson (1990)[Full Text]; Cusick and Hickman (2005); Cusick, Martin, and May (2003)[Full Text] [Research Findings ].

[23] Forrest, Myhill, and Tilley (2005)[Full Text].

[24] Matthews (2005).

[25] Weitzer (1999); Hunter, May, and the Drug Strategy Directorate (2004)[Full Text]; Hester and Westmarland (2004)[Full Text]; Thukral and Ditmore (2003); Home Office (2006)[Full Text].

[26] Benson and Matthews (2000).

[27] Matthews (1997)[Full Text]; Lowman (1992); Hester and Westmarland (2004)[Full Text]; Hunter, May, and the Drug Strategy Directorate (2004)[Full Text]; Home Office (2006)[Full Text].

[28] Dodge, Star-Gimeno, and Williams (2005).

[29] Brooks-Gordon and Gelsthorpe (2003a); Campbell and Storr (2001); Sanders (2005); Penfold et al. (2004).

[30] Haringey Council (2004)[Full Text].

[31] Weitzer (1999).

[32] Eck and Spelman (1987); Sampson and Scott (2000) [Full text]; Benson and Matthews (2000); Lowman (1992); Larsen (1996); Getz (1996)[Full Text].

[33] American Prosecutors Research Institute (2004)[Full Text].

[34] Hill (2004); Moser (2001).

[35] Weidner (2001); Buffalo Prostitution Task Force (1999)[Full Text]; Weitzer (1999).

[36] Hubbard (1998)[Full Text].

[37] Home Office (2004)[Full Text]; Home Office (2006)[Full Text]; Hughes (2004)[Full Text].

[38] Sagar (2005).

[39] Forrest, Myhill, and Tilley (2005)[Full Text].

[40] Campbell and Storr (2001); Brooks-Gordon and Gelsthorpe (2003a); Monto (2004); Van Brunschot (2003); Wortley and Fischer (2002); Wortley, Fischer, and Webster (2002); Hughes (2004)[Full Text]; Fischer et al. (2002).

[41] Weitzer (2000).

[42] Hughes (2004)[Full Text]; Victoria Attorney-General’s Prostitution Advisory Group (2002)[Full Text].

[43] Wortley and Fischer (2002).

[44] Campbell and Storr (2001).

[45] Hunter, May, and the Drug Strategy Directorate (2004)[Full Text].

[46] San Diego Police Department (1994)[Full Text]; San Bernardino Police Department (1999)[Full Text].

[47] Larsen (1996); Hester and Westmarland (2004)[Full Text].

[48] Lowman (1992).

[49] Hester and Westmarland (2004)[Full Text].

[50] Expert Group on Prostitution, and Scottish Executive (2004)[Full Text].

[51] Hester and Westmarland (2004)[Full Text].

[52] Dalla, Zia, and Kennedy (2003); Cusick, Martin, and May (2003)[Full Text] [Research Findings ]; Hester and Westmarland (2004).

[53] McIntyre (2002)[Full Text]; Dalla, Zia, and Kennedy (2003).

[54] Home Office (2004)[Full Text].

[55] Golding (1994); Buffalo Prostitution Task Force (1999)[Full Text]; Sampson and Scott (2000) [Full text].

[56] Benson and Matthews (1995); Weidner (2001); Weitzer (1999).

[57] Hester and Westmarland (2004)[Full Text]; Cleveland Police, Middlesbrough Police District (2000); Penfold et al. (2004).

[58] Sanders (2001); Sanders (2004); Kurtz et al. (2004).

[59] New Westminster Police Service (2002)[Full Text].

[60] Benson and Matthews (1995).

[61] Canada Department of Justice Research Section (1989).

[62] Getz (1996)[Full Text].

[63] Benson and Matthews (2000); Buffalo Prostitution Task Force (1999)[Full Text].

[64] Monto (2004).

[65] Weitzer (1999).

[66] Sampson and Scott (2000) [Full text].

[67] Matthews (1997)[Full Text]; Larsen (1996).

[68] www.renewal.net (n.d.)[Full Text] ; Hughes (2004)[Full Text]; Home Office (2006)[Full Text].

[69] Sampson and Scott (2000) [Full text].

[70] Weidner (2001).

[71] Portland Police Bureau and Campbell Resources Inc. (1991)[Full Text].

[72] Spelman (1993); Sampson and Scott (2000) [Full text].

[73] Sampson and Scott (2000) [Full text].

[74] Home Office (2004)[Full Text].

[75] Hunter, May, and the Drug Strategy Directorate (2004)[Full Text].

[76] Sampson and Scott (2000) [Full text].

[77] Benson and Matthews (1995); Golding (1994).

[78] Bindel and Kelly (2003)[Full Text].