Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Endnotes

[1] Police and other agencies and organizations prevented a Cinco de Mayo riot in 2004.

[2] Police arrested 519 people over the Halloween weekend in 2004 (source: Wisconsin News Channel 3000 story aired Nov. 18, 2004: "How Much Did Halloween Riots Cost This Year?").

[3] The Ohio State University (2003).[Full Text]

[4] Winegar (2001).[Full Text]

[5] University of Cincinnati Cinco de Mayo disturbances, for example.

[6] See Waddington, Jones, and Critcher’s (1989) list of basic propositions to understanding crowds.

[7] McPhail (1991).

[8] McPhail (1991); Schweingruber (2000).

[9] Michigan State University (2002).[Full Text]

[10] Oldham (2002).[Full Text]

[11] Fisher, Eck, and Madensen (2004). [Full Text] [Follow-up Report]

[12] McPhail and Wohlstein (1983).[Full Text]

[13] Waddington, Jones, and Critcher (1989).

[14] Oldham (2002).[Full Text]

[15] For a more detailed explanation of crowd surges, see McPhail and Wohlstein (1986).

[16] Waddington, Jones, and Critcher (1989).

[17] National Institutes of Health (2002).[Full Text]

[18] Epstein and Finn (1997) (citing Bausell, Bausell, and Siegel 1991). [Full Text]

[19] Epstein and Finn (1997) (citing Engs and Hanson 1994).[Full Text]

[20] Sullenberger (n.d.).[Goldstein Submission]

[21] Epstein and Finn (1997).[Full Text]

[22] Johnson (2004). [Full Text]

[23] Waddington, Jones, and Critcher (1989).

[24] Stott and Reicher (1998).

[25] Clarke and Weisburd (1994).[Full Text]

[26] Walsh (2003).[Full Text]

[27] Nichols (1997).

[28] Shanahan (1995). [Full Text]

[29] Sampson and Scott (2000). [Full Text]

[30] Kurz (2001).[Full Text]

[31] Kurz (2001).[Full Text]

[32] Walski (2002).[Full Text]

[33] Kurz (2001).[Full Text]

[34] U.S. Department of Education (2002).[Full Text]

[35] Epstein and Finn (1997).[Full Text]

[36] Sampson and Scott (2000). [Full Text]

[37] Casady and Major (n.d.).

[38] Casady and Major (n.d.).

[39] Walski (2002).[Full Text]

[40] Kurz (2001). [Full Text]

[41] Sullenberger (n.d.).[Goldstein Submission]

[42] Sullenberger (n.d.).[Goldstein Submission]

[43] Walski (2002). [Full Text]

[44] Wechsler et al. (2002).

[45] Weitzman et al. (2003).

[46] Walski (2002).[Full Text]

[47] Sampson and Scott (2000). [Full Text]

[48] U.S. Department of Education (2002).[Full Text]

[49] U.S. Department of Education (2002).[Full Text]

[50] Harman (1995).[Full Text]

[51] Epstein and Finn (1997).[Full Text]

[52] Sampson and Scott (2000). [Full Text]

[53] Begert (1995).

[54] Kurz (2001).[Full Text]

[55] Walski (2002).[Full Text]

[56] Bjor, Knutsson, and Kuhlhorn (1992).

[57] Sampson and Scott (2000). [Full Text]

[58] Oldham (2002).[Full Text]

[59] Sampson and Scott (2000). [Full Text]

[60] Harman (1995).[Full Text]

[61] IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center (1992).

[62] Winegar (2001).[Full Text]

[63] Bjor, Knutsson, and Kuhlhorn (1992).

[64] Harman (1995).[Full Text]

[65] Goetz (2002).[Full Text]

[66] Oldham (2002). [Full Text]

[67] Casady and Major (n.d.).

[68] Harman (1995).[Full Text]

[69] Sampson and Scott (2000). [Full Text]

[70] Winegar (2001)[Full Text]; Sampson and Scott (2000).[Full Text]

[71] Oldham (2002).[Full Text]

[72] Walsh (2003).[Full Text]

[73] Winegar (2001).[Full Text]

[74] Harman (1995).[Full Text]

[75] Oldham (2002).[Full Text]

[76] Winegar (2001).[Full Text]

[77] Sampson and Scott (2000). [Full Text]

[78] Oldham (2002).[Full Text]

[79] Harman (1995).[Full Text]

[80] U.S. Department of Education (2002).[Full Text]