Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Endnotes

[1] Tiefenbrun (2002:136).[Full Text]

[2]US Department of State (2005). [Full Text]

[3]Bales Fletcher and Stover (2004)[Full Text].

[4] International Labour Office (2003).[Full Text]

[5] TVPA (2000).[Full Text]

[6]Salt (2000); Laczko and Gramegna (2003).

[7] U.S. Department of State (2004)[Full Text]. How these figures were computed remains unclear. The number of women assisted as a result of TVPA is substantially lower, in the hundreds Bales Fletcher and Stover (2004:10)[Full Text].

[8] Kangaspunta (2003).[Full Text]

[9] Tiefenbrun (2002:139-141).[Full Text]

[10] U.S. Department of Justice (2004).[Full Text]

[11] MacPherson and Gushulak (2004).[Full Text]

[12] Gushulak and MacPherson (2000).

[13] Gushulak and MacPherson (2000).

[14]Gumbel (2001); Bales Fletcher and Stover (2004)[Full Text].

[15] Walter (2002).

[16]Stuart Police Department (2001).

[17] National City Police Department (2000). [Full Text]

[18]Ryf (2002:50).

[19] Human Rights Watch (2001).[Full Text]

[20] Guerette (2004).

[21] Cwikel et al. (2004). Early exposure to trauma also increases the chances that a woman will be recruited.

[22] Stone (2004).[Full Text]

[23] Raymond and Hughes (2001).[Full Text]

[24] Florida State University (2003).[Full Text]

[25] Hughes (2001).[Full Text]

[26] Parrado et al. (2004).

[27] Raymond and Hughes (2001).[Full Text]

[28] United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) (2003).[Full Text]

[29] TVPA (2000).[Full Text]

[30] 8 U.S.C. sec. 1227(a)(1)(E)(i). [Full Text]

[31]U.S. Department of State (2004).[Full Text]

[32]Anderson and O’Connell Davidson (2003).

[33] Raymond and Hughes (2001)[Full Text]; Hughes (2004a).[Full Text]

[34]Wijers and Lap-Chew (1999); Zarembka (2000)[Full Text]; Anderson and O’Connell Davidson (2003).

[35] Human Rights Watch (2001)[Full Text]; Anderson and O’Connell Davidson (2003).

[36]Bales Fletcher and Stover (2004)[Full Text].

[37] Scott (2000).[Full Text]

[38]  Hughes (2004a).[Full Text]

[39] See generally Freilich and Newman (2005).

[40] Seghetti et al. (2004).[Full Text]

[41] Nordic Institute for Women’s Studies and Gender Research (2002).

[42]Raymond and Hughes (2001)[Full Text]; Ryf (2002: 20).

[43]Salt (2000).

[44] Kansas City, Missouri Police Department (2004).[Full Text]

[45]Mackenzieet al. (2003).[Full Text]

[46] Raymond and Hughes (2001).[Full Text]

[47]Hughes (2004a).[Full Text]

[48] Torrey and Dubin (2003).

[49] Hughes (2003).[Full Text]

[50] National Trafficking Alert System (no date).[Full Text]

[51] Venkatraman (2003).

[52]See http://www.palmbeachpost.com/moderndayslavery/content/moderndayslavery/

[53] Jacobson (2002).[Full Text]

[54] Edwards (2003).[Full Text]

[55] SPOG (2005).[Full Text]

[56] King (2003).[Full Text]

[57] Ekberg (2004).

[58] Persons (1996).

[59] Hughes (2004a).[Full Text]

[60] Hughes (2004a).[Full Text]

[61] Hughes (2004a:27).[Full Text]

[62]Hughes (2004a).

[63] Hesseling (1994). [Full Text]

[64] Weidner (1999).

[65] Raymond (2004).

[66] Hughes (2004a)[Full Text]; Ekberg (2004); Nordic Institute for Women’s Studies and Gender Research (2002).