Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Endnotes

[1] United States Department of Justice (1994).

[2] Myers and Brzostowski (1982).

[3] President's Commission on Model State Drug Laws (1993).

[4] Grosskopf, Hayes, and Hirschberg (1995).

[5] Coe and Wiesel (2001).

[6] United States v. United States Coin and Currency, 401 U.S. 715 (1971), p. 720

[7] Hyde (1995); but see Clingermayer, Hecker, and Madsen (2005) who found that in Ohio criminal forfeiture is more common than civil forfeiture.

[8] Hyde (1995); Warchol, Payne, and Johnson (1996), pp. 53-4.

[9] United States v. One Mercedes 560 SEL (1990); United States v. One Parcel of Land at 508 Depot Street (1992).

[10] Hyde (1995).

[11] Warchol and Johnson (1996).

[12] Cooper v. Greenwood, 904 F.2d 302, 304-5 (5th Cir. 1990).

[13] Edgeworth (2004), p. 10.

[14] Edgeworth (2004), p. 11.

[15] United States v. Banco Cafetero Panama, 797 F.2d 1154, p. 1158 (2nd Cir. 1986).

[16] 21 U.S.C § 881(a)(7).

[17] 21 U.S.C. § 853(a)(3).

[18] United States v. Cauble, 706 F.2d 1322 (5th Cir. 1983).

[19] 18 U.S.C. § 1963(a)(2).

[20] www.usdoj.gov/jmd/afp/02fundreport/2007affr/report1.htm

[21] www.usdoj.gov/jmd/afp/02fundreport/2007affr/report3.htm

[22] See, e.g., 21 U.S.C. §§ 881(e)(1)(A) and (e)(3); 18 U.S.C § 981(e)(2); 18 U.S.C § 1963(g); and 19 U.S.C § 1616a.

[23] Worrall and Kovandzic (2008); for more details on the process see: www.usdoj.gov/usao/eousa/foia_reading_room/usam/title9/116mcrm.htm

[24] Edgeworth (2004), p. 173.

[25] Nev. Rev. Stat. §§ 179.118 and 179.1187.

[26] Mo. Ann. Stat. § 513.623.

[27] Nev. Rev Stat § 179.1187(2).

[28] S.D. Codified Laws Ann. § 34-20B-89.

[29] S.D. Codified Laws Ann. § 34-20B-64.

[30] Md. Ann. Code Crim. Proc. § 12-403(c)-(e); Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 18, § 4247.

[31] Minn. Stat. Ann. § 609.5315 sub. 5(3).

[32] Mo. Ann. Stat. § 44-12-206 (1995).

[33] Dillon (2001).

[34] Worrall and Kovandzic (2008).

[35] Haw. Rev. Stat. § 712A-16(2).

[36] W. Va. Code § 60A-7-706(a).

[37] Colo. Rev. Stat. § 16-13-311(3)(a)(V).

[38] Cal. Health and Safety Code § 11489(b)(2)(B).

[39] See Ala. Code § 20-2-93(e).

[40] Ga. Code Ann. § 16-13-49(u)(4).

[41] Tex. Code Crim. Proc. § 59.06(a).

[42] Hartman (2001), p. 1.

[43] Bowles, Faure, and Garoupa (2000), p. 547.

[44] Mast, Benson, and Rasmussen (2000), p. 301.

[45] Benson, Rasmussen, and Sollars (1995), p. 39.

[46] Blumenson and Nilsen (1997).

[47] Jensen and Gerber (1996).

[48] Hyde (1995).

[49] 106 Pub. L. No. 185.

[50] Miller and Selva (1994).

[51] Worrall (2001).

[52] Worrall and Kovandzic (2008).

[53] Clingermayer, Hecker, and Madsen (2005).

[54] Clingermayer, Hecker, and Madsen (2005), p. 319.

[55] Clingermayer, Hecker, and Madsen (2005), p. 322.

[56] Dillon (2000).

[57] Baicker and Jacobson (2007), p. 2135.

[58] Benson, Rasmussen, and Sollars (1995), p. 38.

[59] Hyde (1995).

[60] Colquitt (2001).

[61] Rosenburg (1988).

[62] United States v. Ursery, 518 U.S. 267 (1996).

[63] United States v. James Daniel Good Real Property, 510 U.S. 43 (1993).

[64] Austin v. United States, 509 U.S. 602(1993).

[65] Austin v. United States, 509 U.S. 602(1993), p. 622.

[66] Kessler (1993).

[67] Hyde (1995), p. 25.

[68] Wolf and Worrall (2004).

[69] Worrall and Tibbetts (2006).

[70] Public Law 105-178.

[71] Voas, Tippetts, and Taylor (1998).

[72] DeYoung (1998).

[73] Crosby (1995).

[74] New York City Code § 14-140(b) (1999).

[75] www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/outreach/safedige/spring2004/SPR04_W04_NY.htm

[76] Terry (2000), p. 1840.

[77] California Vehicle Code § 14607.6(a).

[78] Voas and DeYoung (2002).

[79] Peck and Voas (2002), p. 255.

[80] Weitzer (1999).

[81] Hartman (2001).

[82] Hartman (2001), p. 2.

[83] Edgeworth (2004), p. 219.

[84] As found in Edgeworth (2004), pp. 221-226.