Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Endnotes

  1. Davis and Lurigio (1996); Sherman (1990).
  2. Wilson and Kelling (1982).
  3. Chermak, McGarrell, and Weiss (2001); Caeti (1999); Fritsch, Caeti, and Taylor (1999); Eck and Spelman (1987); Police Foundation (1982); Kelling et al. (1974). But see Sherman (1997) for some evidence that substantial increases in police officers in high-crime big cities do reduce reported crime levels.
  4. Sherman and Weisburd 1995.
  5. Smith (2001); Braga et al. (1999); Jacobson (1999) [Full text]; Caeti (1999); Capowich and Roehl (1994); Pennell and Curtis (1993); Eck and Spelman (1987).
  6. Sherman (1990).
  7. Weiss and McGarrell (1999); Farrell, Chenery, and Pease (1998)[Full text]; Wright and Pease (1997)[Full text]; Caulkins, Larson, and Rich (1993); Sherman (1990).
  8. Cohen and Ludwig (2002) [Full text]; Chermak, McGarrell, and Weiss (2001); Braga et al. (1999).
  9. Kort et al. (1998); Kleiman (1988)[Full text].
  10. Novak et al. (1999); Worden, Bynum, and Frank (1994); Kleiman (1988)[Full text].
  11. Worden, Bynum, and Frank (1994).
  12. Braga (2001); McGarrell, Chermak, and Weiss (1999)[Full text]; Caeti (1999); Cordner (1996); Weisburd and Green (1995). [Full text]
  13. Chermak, McGarrell, and Weiss (2001); Sherman (1990).
  14. Braga (2001).
  15. Braga (2001); Braga et al. (1999); Wright and Pease (1997)[Full text]; Davis and Lurigio (1996); Green (1996)[Abstract only]; Weisburd and Green (1995); Capowich and Roehl (1994); Pennell and Curtis (1993); Potter, Gaines, and Holbrook (1990). [Full text]
  16. Sherman (1990).
  17. Cohen and Ludwig (2002); Sherman (1997); Sherman and Rogan (1995); Sherman (1990); Matthews (1990). [Full text]
  18. Josi, Donahue, and Magnus (2000); Wright and Pease (1997)[Full text]; Matthews (1990) [Full text]; Sherman (1990).
  19. Braga (2001).
  20. Caeti (1999); Capowich and Roehl (1994).
  21. Weidner (1999); Davis and Lurigio (1996); Kennedy (1993)[Full text]; Matthews (1990).[Full text]
  22. Maher and Dixon (2001)[Full text]; Eck and Maguire (2000); Caeti (1999); Sherman (1997); Worden, Bynum, and Frank (1994); Kleiman (1988)[Full text].
  23. National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (1968).
  24. See Kraska and Kappeler (1997).
  25. Rosen (1997).
  26. Cohen and Ludwig (2002); Chermak, McGarrell, and Weiss (2001); Eck and Maguire (2000); Davis and Mateu-Gelabert (1999); Caeti (1999); Boydstun (1975).
  27. Davis and Lurigio (1996); Kennedy (1993) [Full text]; Sherman (1990); Kleiman (1988). [Full text]
  28. National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (1968).
  29. Smith (2001); Jacobson (1999)[Full text]; Sherman and Rogan (1995); Kennedy (1993)[Full text]; Uchida, Forst, and Annan (1992); Matthews (1990)[Full text]; Conners and Nugent (1990); Kleiman (1988)[Full text]; Schnelle et al. (1977); Chaiken, Lawless, and Stevenson (1974).
  30. Schnelle et al. (1977).
  31. See Cohen and Ludwig (2002) and Smith (2001) for examples of crackdown cost-effectiveness analyses.
  32. Davis and Lurigio (1996); Green (1996)[Abstract only]; Zimmer (1990). [Full text]
  33. Maher and Dixon (2001)[Full text]; Naik et al. (1996)[Abstract only]; Worden, Bynum, and Frank (1994); Potter, Gaines, and Holbrook (1990)[Full text]; Sherman (1990); Kleiman (1988)[Full text].
  34. Sampson and Cohen (1988); Wilson and Boland (1978). But see Jacob and Rich (1981), cited in Sampson and Cohen (1988), for contrary conclusion.
  35. Caeti (1999), citing Whitaker et al. (1983, 1985); Boydstun (1975).
  36. Weiss and McGarrell (1999); Sampson and Cohen (1988); Wilson and Boland (1978). But see Weiss and Freels (1996) for a contrary finding that aggressive traffic enforcement produced no reduction in robbery or auto theft.
  37. Chaiken, Lawless, and Stevenson (1974).
  38. Eck and Spelman (1987).
  39. Kleiman (1988). [Full text]
  40. Farrell, Chenery, and Pease (1998). [Full text]
  41. Boydstun (1975).
  42. Smith (2001), citing Cordner (1981); Caeti (1999), citing Dahmann (1974). But both Sampson and Cohen (1988) and Wilson and Boland (1978) found that aggressive enforcement was not strongly correlated with low burglary rates.
  43. Josi, Donahue, and Magnus (2000); Weiss and McGarrell (1999).
  44. Smith (2001), citing Sampson and Cohen (1988).
  45. Uchida, Forst, and Annan (1992); Zimmer (1990)[Full text]; Kleiman (1988). [Full text]
  46. Novak et al. (1999); Schnelle et al. (1977), citing Schnelle et al. (1975); Kelling et al. (1974).
  47. Schnelle et al. (1977).
  48. McGarrell, Chermak, and Weiss (1999). [Full text]
  49. Sherman, Shaw, and Rogan (1995). [Full text]
  50. Cohen and Ludwig (2002).
  51. Fritsch, Caeti, and Taylor (1999).
  52. Kent and Smith (2001); Vogel and Torres (1998); Weisel and Painter (1997).
  53. Kennedy et al. (2001). [Full text]
  54. Caeti (1999), citing Klein (1995).
  55. Weiss and Freels (1996); see also Josi, Donahue, and Magnus (2000).
  56. Carr, Schnelle, and Kirchner (1980).
  57. Campbell and Ross (1968).
  58. McMahon (2000).
  59. Ross (1994).
  60. Sherman (1990), citing Ross (1981).
  61. Ross (1994).
  62. Sherman (1990).
  63. Smith (2001); Gersh and Beardsley (2000); Davis and Lurigio (1996); Sherman and Rogan (1995); Smith et al. (1992); Zimmer (1990)[Full text]; Sherman (1990); Reuter et al. (1988).
  64. Davis and Lurigio (1996); Worden, Bynum, and Frank (1994); Kleiman (1988)[Full text]; Reuter et al. (1988).
  65. Jacobson (1999)[Full text]; Green (1996)[Abstract only]; Worden, Bynum, and Frank (1994); Kleiman (1988). [Full text]
  66. Maher and Dixon (2001)[Full text]; May et al. (2000) [Full text]; Kleiman (1988)[Full text]; Reuter et al. (1988).
  67. Naik et al. (1996). [Abstract only]
  68. See Connors and Nugent (1990) for a discussion of how these factors affect the choice of drug enforcement tactics.
  69. Davis and Lurigio (1996); Caulkins, Larson, and Rich (1993); Smith et al. (1992).
  70. Aitken et al. (2002)[Full text]; May et al. (2000) [Full text]; Davis and Lurigio (1996); Potter, Gaines, and Holbrook (1990)[Full text]; Zimmer (1990). [Full text]
  71. Aitken et al. (2002)[Full text]; Maher and Dixon (2001). [Full text]
  72. Maher and Dixon (2001)[Full text]; Worden, Bynum, and Frank (1994); Caulkins, Larson, and Rich (1993); Kleiman (1988).[Full text]
  73. Davis and Lurigio (1996); Worden, Bynum, and Frank (1994).
  74. Matthews (1990)[Full text]; Eck and Spelman (1987).
  75. Matthews (1990). [Full text]
  76. Scott (2001). [Full text]
  77. Kinlock (1994).