Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

Table 3: CPTED and the Problem-solving Process Three Case Examples

Case #1

Case #2

Case #3


smoking, drinking and vandalism in a high school lavatory reported by custodial workers

tagging and graffiti at the back of an office center noted by property managers

nighttime ATM patron robberies reported to police

  • students
  • faculty
  • staff (includes custodial workers)
  • administration
  • police/SRO
  • parents
  • property owner
  • property management
  • tenant businesses
  • police
  • adjacent property owners and managers (depending on outcome of analysis)
  • tenants and patrons of adjacent businesses (depending on outcome of analysis)
  • traffic engineering or transit
  • robbery victims
  • other bank and ATM patrons
  • bank management
  • bank employees
  • corporate security
  • police
  • property owner or management (if different from the bank)
  • adjacent property owners and management (depending on outcome of analysis)
  • small group meetings (faculty group, student group, custodial group), OR
  • CPTED task force
  • stakeholder interviews
  • small group meetings (property management, tenants, adjacent property owners, and managers)
  • stakeholder interviews
  • stakeholder interviews
ANALYSIS: Crime Data
  • number of incidents (from maintenance records related to vandalism)
  • temporal distribution of problem
  • typical scenario or MO,
  • similar problems and their locations elsewhere in school
  • number of incidents (from maintenance records)
  • temporal distribution of problem
  • offender characteristics based on analysis of graffiti and tagging
  • number of incidents reported to police
  • other reports or indications of unusual behavior
  • temporal distribution of incidents
  • offender characteristics from victim reports and CCTV tapes of robberies
Population Characteristics
  • N/A
  • residents, employees, patrons, and visitors to the area
  • area residents, employees, patrons and visitors
Land Use and Development Patterns
  • N/A
  • adjacent land uses
  • activity patterns and use schedules
  • adjacent land uses
  • activity patterns and use schedules
Traffic, Transportation and Transit Systems
  • N/A
  • traffic volumes and travel patterns
  • pedestrian routes (sidewalks, greenways, trails, and informal paths)
  • parking lots/garages and loading facilities
  • transit routes, stops, or transit centers
  • traffic volumes and travel patterns
  • pedestrian routes (sidewalks, greenways, trails and informal paths)
  • parking lots/garages and loading facilities
  • transit routes, stops, or transit centers
Resident or User Surveys, Stakeholder Interviews
  • custodial workers, students, faculty, and administrators
  • known and perceived problems
  • offender identification
  • strategy recommendations
  • property management interviews
  • surveys of tenant businesses
  • victim interviews
  • corporate security interviews
On-Site Behavioral Observations
  • lunchtime movement (use of cafeteria and other locations on campus); multiple days in the case of changing schedules
  • activity and use of lavatory during remainder of school day
  • activity and use of lavatory during sporting events
  • after-hours use and nighttime movement, both weekday and weekend, and both on-site and to/from adjacent properties
  • N/A
Safety Audits and Security Surveys
  • building floor plan
  • room/space assignments
  • class, cafeteria and sporting event schedules
  • locking systems and CCTV
  • maintenance and repair policies and procedures
  • cafeteria policies and procedures
  • hallway monitoring policies and procedures
  • student code of conduct (application, enforcement, consequences, etc.)
  • building design
  • site layout and landscaping (e.g., fencing), and relationship to adjacent properties and nearby land uses
  • lighting and CCTV
  • maintenance policies and procedures
  • hours of operation for tenant businesses
  • building design and any related corporate policies
  • ATM location and design
  • site layout, including relationship to adjacent properties and nearby land uses
  • CCTV and lighting
  • security policies and procedures
  • hours of operation and staffing
RESPONSE: Opportunities to Control Access
  • close cafeteria and campus (no one leaves), which requires changes to lunch schedules
  • install lock on lavatory door
  • install barricade, removing access to gym/sport area(s)
  • perimeter fencing, removing access to the site
  • graffiti-resistant paint/surface treatment on problem areas
  • remove ATM completely, or move it to another location (including automobile access rather than walk-up)
  • change hours of operation and availability of ATM
  • install fence between ATM and drive-through bank lanes
Options for Providing Opportunities to See and Be Seen
  • change faculty monitoring assignments
  • install CCTV
  • change lavatory design to improve visibility
  • increase light levels
  • install CCTV
  • trim or remove vegetation
  • increase police patrol (through site as well as around site)
  • hire private security to patrol
  • increase police patrol or hire private security
  • increase lighting around the building, especially in the drive-through area
Opportunities to Define Ownership and Use, and Encourage the Maintenance of Territory
  • limit the area available for lunch outside the cafeteria
  • change lavatory available during lunch periods to one in an area that is more easily supervised
  • immediately repair and replacement of damaged fixtures, etc.
  • consistently enforce school policies and consequences for policy violations
  • negotiate alternative use strategies with neighboring property owners (e.g., no readmittance policy to keep skaters inside the building)
  • immediately repaint when graffiti is installed
  • N/A
ASSESSMENT: Possible Scenarios to Look For Over the Long-Term
  • there is no evidence of smoking, drinking or vandalism in the lavatory, OR
  • the problem occurs infrequently and only during sporting events when the lavatory is unlocked, OR
  • changes to lunchtime monitoring have resulted in fewer behavioral problems in other areas near the cafeteria, not just in the problem lavatory, OR
  • the problem appears in another lavatory or another location at the school, OR
  • the problem has changed, e.g., the problem is now bullying, not vandalism, OR
  • there is no evidence of tagging or graffiti on the site, OR
  • the amount and/or frequency of graffiti is reduced, OR
  • hanging out and other problems at the skating rink have been reduced or eliminated, OR
  • graffiti problems shift to another location on this site or elsewhere in the neighborhood, OR
  • graffiti continues to be a problem, OR
  • the problem has changed, e.g., the problem now includes vandalism to lighting, OR
  • the robbery problem is eliminated, OR
  • the adjacent commercial strip is seeing new investment and increases in patronage, OR
  • ATM patrons are now robbed at their cars, OR
  • ATM robberies move to another bank, OR
  • other types of robbery are emerging in the neighborhood