Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

References

Abbott, J., and M. Geddie (2000). "Event and Venue Management: Minimizing Liability Through Effective Crowd Management Techniques." Event Management 6(4):259–270. [Full text]

Alpert, G., and D. Flynn (2000). "Community Policing and Major Special Events: A Case Study of Super Bowl XXXIII." In C. Brito and E. Gratto (eds.), Problem-Oriented Policing: Crime-Specific Problems, Critical Issues, and Making POP Work, Vol. 3. Washington, D.C.: Police Executive Research Forum.

Arbetter, L., and P. Holy (1994). "Major League Security Hits the Minors." Security Management 38:40–45.

Arms, R., and G. Russell (1997). "Impulsivity, Fight History, and Camaraderie as Predictors of a Willingness To Escalate a Disturbance." Current Psychology 15:279–285.

Associated Press (2006). "Annoyed by Jerks in Stands? Call 381-JERK: Bengals Fans Can Call Special Line To Report Unruly Behavior." "MSNBC News," August 8.

——— (2005). "NBA To Limit Size, Amount of Beer Sold." "MSNBC News," February 17.

Bale, J. (2000). "The Changing Face of Football: Stadiums and Communities." Soccer & Society 1(1):91–101.

Ballard, C. (2004). "The Eye of a Perfect Storm." Sports Illustrated 101:50.

Begert, M. (1998). "Crowd Control Measures." The Police Chief (June):42–51.

Berk, R. (1974). "A Gaming Approach to Crowd Behavior." American Sociological Review 39:355–373.

Bralley, B. (2007). "Sanctions Enforced for Students Throwing Objects at Games."

Branscombe, N., and D. Wann (1992). "Role of Identification With a Group, Arousal, Categorization Processes, and Self-Esteem in Sports Spectator Aggression." Human Relations 45(10):1013–1033.

Brindley, J. (1982). "Disruptive Crowd Behavior—A Psychological Perspective." Police Journal 55(1):28–37.

Coates, J. (1972). "Wit and Humor: A Neglected Aid in Crowd and Mob Control." Crime and Delinquency 18(2):184–191.

Connors, E. (2007). Planning and Managing Security for Major Special Events: Guidelines for Law Enforcement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. [Full text]

Courakis, N. (1999). "Football Violence: Not Only a British Problem." In R. Hood and N. Courakis (eds.), The Changing Face of Crime and Criminal Policy in Europe. Oxford, England: University of Oxford.

Cox, J. (1998). "Strategies for Effective Crowd Control." Police Chief 65:26–41.

Dewar, C. (1979). "Spectator Fights at Professional Baseball Games." Review of Sport and Leisure 4:12–25.

Dimmock, J., and R. Grove (2005). "Relationship of Fan Identification to Determinants of Aggression." Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 17(1):37–47.

Duke, V., and L. Crolley (1996). "Football Spectator Behavior in Argentina: A Case of Separate Evolution." The Sociological Review 44:272–293.

Estes, A. (2004). "Super Bowl Chaos Detailed in Transcripts." The Boston Globe, April 23, p. A1.

Eugene Police Commission (2001). An Analysis of Police Response to Public Assemblies, Demonstrations, and Civil Disturbance Events. Eugene, Ore: Eugene Police Commission.

Felson, M. (1995). "Those Who Discourage Crime." In J. Eck and D. Weisburd (eds.), Crime and Place, Vol. 4. Monsey, N.Y.: Criminal Justice Press. [Full text]

Garland, J., and M. Rowe (2000). "The Hooligan's Fear of the Penalty." Soccer and Society 1(1):144–157.

——— (1999). "The 'English Disease'—Cured or in Remission? An Analysis of Police Responses to Football Hooliganism in the 1990s." Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal 1(4):35–47. [Full text]

Getlen, L. (2006). "There's a Riot Going On: The 10 Biggest Onstage Meltdowns in Rock History."

Goodman, F. (2001). "Making Concerts Secure." Rolling Stone 882:27–28.

Gramling, S. (2001). "The FHM Definitive Guide to Football Fanatics." FHM Magazine (September):140–148.

Human Effects Advisory Panel (2001). Crowd Behavior, Crowd Control, and the Use of Nonlethal Weapons. University Park, Pa.: Penn State Institute for Nonlethal Defense Technologies. [Full text]

Jayson, S. (2004). "On or off the Field, It's a 'Civility' War out There." USA Today, November 30, p. 9D.

Johnson, K. (2004). Underage Drinking. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. [Full text]

LaRoi, H. (2007). "Breath Test Is Ticket to Game for Some Fans." Wisconsin State Journal, September 22, p. A1.

Lewis, J. (2007). Sport Fan Violence in North America. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield

Publishers Inc.

MacDonald, G. (2004). "After the Big Game, Why Is There a Riot Going On?" USA Today, November 1, p. 6D.

Madensen, T., and J. Eck (2006). Student Party Riots. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. [Full text]

Marsh, P., K. Fox, G. Carnibella, J. McCann, and J. Marsh (1996). Football Violence in Europe. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: The Amsterdam Group.

McCallum, J. (2004). "The Ugliest Game." Sports Illustrated 101:44–50.

McNamara, M. (director) (1999). "Behind the Music: ‘Weird Al' Yankovic."

McPhail, C. (1991). The Myth of the Madding Crowd. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.

Metscher, R. (1996). "A Room With a View." Security Management 40:79.

Miller, J., and A. Gillentine (2006). "An Analysis of Risk Management Policies for Tailgating Activities at Selected NCAA Division I Football Games." Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport 16(2):197–215.

Morrison, G., and J. Airey (2002). "Special Event Safety and Security: Protecting the World Alpine Ski Championships." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 71:1–5. [Full text]

Morrone, F. (1994). "Special Event Management and the Terrorist Threat." Police Chief 61:46–47, 50.

Neal, D., D. Sugarman, J. Hustad, C. Caska, and K. Carey (2005). "It's All Fun and Games, or Is It? Collegiate Sporting Events and Celebratory Drinking." Journal of Studies on Alcohol 66(2):291–294.

Nelson, T., and H. Wechsler (2003). "School Spirits: Alcohol and Collegiate Sports Fans." Addictive Behaviors 28:1–11.

Nylen, L. (1994). "Policing Major Soccer Events." Police Chief 61:42–45.

O'Reilly, S. (1999). "World Cup 2006? An Examination of the Policing of Risk in the Context of Major Football Events." Risk Management: An International Journal 1(2):21–33.

Poulin, K. (1992). "Homecoming to Remember." Security Management 36:103, 105–107.

Price, S. (2003). "When Fans Attack." Sports Illustrated 98:48–53.

Rees, D., and K. Schnepel (2008). "College Football Games and Crime." Working Paper Series No. 08-01. Boulder: University of Colorado.

Reifman, A., R. Larrick, and S. Fein (1991). "Temper and Temperature on the Diamond: The Heat-Aggression Relationship in Major-League Baseball." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 17:580–585.

Roadburg, A. (1980). "Factors Precipitating Fan Violence: A Comparison of Professional Soccer in Britain and North America." The British Journal of Sociology 31(2):265–276.

Roberts, J., and C. Benjamin (2000). "Spectator Violence in Sports: A North American Perspective." European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 8:163–181.

Rushin, S. (2004). "Hey, Fan, Put a Cork in It." Sports Illustrated 101:17.

Russell, G. (2004). "Sport Riots: A Social-Psychological Review." Aggression and Violent Behavior 9:353–378.

——— (1983). "Crowd Size and Density in Relation to Athletic Aggression and Performance." Social Behavior and Personality 11(1):9–15.

Russell, G., and A. Mustonen (1998). "Peacemakers: Those Who Would Intervene To Quell a Sports Riot." Personality and Individual Differences 24(3):335–339.

Sappenfield, M. (2004). "Sports Violence Fed by Both Fans, Athletes; Incidents Throw Harsh Light on a Culture Fed by Talk Radio and Disrespect for Authority." Christian Science Monitor, November 24, p. 3.

Sharp, A. (1992). "Rock Concerts." Law and Order 40:149–154.

Sir Norman Chester Center for Football Research (2001). "Fact Sheet 1: Football and Football Hooliganism."

Sivarajasingam, V., S. Moore, and J. Shepherd (2004). "Winning, Losing, and Violence." Injury Prevention 11(2):69–70.

Smith, H. (2007). "Faith Hill Causes Stir After Fan Gets a Handful." Retrieved August 6, 2007, from www.cmt.com

Stark, J. (1999). "What a Riot: Diary of a Woodstock Survivor."

Stott, C., and C. Adang (2005). Crowd Dynamics, Policing, and "Hooliganism" at "Euro2004." Research Report for the Economic and Social Research Council. Grant reference: RES-000-23-0617.

Stott, C., and S. Reicher (1998). "Crowd Action as Intergroup Process: Introducing the Police Perspective." European Journal of Social Psychology 28:509–529.

——— (1998). "How Conflict Escalates: The Intergroup Dynamics of Collective Football Crowd 'Violence.'" Sociology 32(2):353–377.

Talalay, S. (2007). "Marlins' Super Saturdays Boost Attendance."

University of California Police Department-Berkeley (2000). "Crowd Management Policy." Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Police Department. [Full text]

Veno, A., and E. Veno (1993). "Situational Prevention of Public Disorder at the Australian Motorcycle Grand Prix." In R. Clarke (ed.), Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 1. Monsey, N.Y.: Criminal Justice Press. [Full text]

Waddell, R. (2000). "Security Is the Issue for This Concert Season." Billboard 112:1–2.

Wann, D., G. Haynes, B. McLean, and P. Pullen (2003). "Sport Team Identification and Willingness To Consider Anonymous Acts of Hostile Aggression." Aggressive Behavior 29:406–413.

Ward, R.(2002). "Fan Violence: Social Violence of Moral Panic." Aggression and Violent Behavior 7:453–475.

Weiss, J., and M. Davis (2005). "Policing the Oktoberfest." Law and Order 53:77–80.

Westin, C. (2003). What Strategies Will a Large Urban Police Department Use To Ensure Effective Police Response to Disturbances at Large Entertainment Venues by 2008? Sacramento, Calif.: Sacramento Police Department.

Yonker, T. (2007). "Woe to Calcio Italiano."

Young, K. (2002). "Standard Deviations: An Update on North American Sports Crowd Disorder." Sociology of Sport Journal 19:237–275.

——— (1988). Sports Crowd Disorder, Mass Media, and Ideology. Ontario: McMaster University.

Zezima, K. (2005). "Panel Blames Boston Police for Errors in Fan's Death." The New York Times, May 26, p. 18.