Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

2009 POP Conference Papers

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All Terrorism Is Local PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Ronald V. Clarke, Professor, Rutgers University
  • Graeme Newman, Professor, State University of New York at Albany

This session provides an overview of the new POP manual, "Policing Terrorism: An Executive's Guide". While the popular media gives the impression that terrorism is the province of the federal Government - the Department of Homeland Security and such organizations as the FBI and CIA, this manual shows how the first line of defense against terrorism is local police. Topics to be covered include: penetrating the myths of terrorism; understanding and responding to terrorism as crime; identifying the four pillars of terrorist opportunity - Targets, Weapons, Tools and Facilitating Conditions - and what you can do about them, working with local communities to reduce terrorist opportunity, your role in collecting intelligence and how to mitigate the fallout should an attack occur.

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Community Development as a POP Response: When Is It the Best Option? PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Bill Geller, Director, Geller and Associates
  • Lisa Belsky, Public Safety/Community Development Consultant
  • Julia Ryan, Community Safety Initiative Director, LISC

Cops sometimes teasingly say when confronted with a chronic problem property or area that "someone should bulldoze the place." This workshop will help police better understand when community development is an appropriate option, and if it is, then how police can most effectively weigh in analytically to ensure that community development actually reduces crime.

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Cops In Schools: A Passing Grade? PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Barbara Raymond, Program Director, The California Endowment

So, your city would like a cop in the high school. Better yet, one is already assigned. How well does that work to reduce crime? What kinds of things work to reduce crime in schools. Why it isn't as intuitive as you would think.

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Drug Courts, Domestic Violence Courts and Mental Health Courts: Judging Their Effectiveness PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Michael Rempel, Research Director, Center for Court Innovation
  • Facilitator: John Eck, Professor, University of Cincinnati

ApIn recent years, an array of specialized "problem-solving courts" has emerged throughout the country as a way of finding more effective criminal justice approaches to the underlying problems that bring offenders into 'the system.' Since 1989, when the nation's first drug court opened in Miami, Florida, a number of different specialized courts have developed, ones for drug addicts, others for domestic violence batterers, or those who have mental illness, or drunk drivers, or veterans, etc. This session will focus on drug courts, domestic violence courts, and mental health courts and review what is known about their effectiveness in reducing offending, and the synergies to and differences with problem-oriented policing.

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Got Hotspots? Comparing POP Interventions to Traditional Saturation Policing PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Jamie Roush, Crime Analysis Unit Manager, Jacksonville (Florida) Sheriff's Office
  • Officer Miles McChriston, Jacksonville (Florida) Sheriff's Office
  • Sergeant Bill Leahy, Nassau County (New York) Police Department
  • Officer Ruth Chapman, Jacksonville (Florida) Sheriff's Office

This session will discuss Jacksonville's efforts, in partnership with the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF), to introduce a research based, large scale combination of problem-oriented policing and saturation patrol. The experimental project is being used as a way to assess problem-oriented policing in relation or contrast to the effects of saturation patrols, and to determine a best strategies for more fully integrating large scale problem-solving into the large agency's business processes. The Problem-Oriented portion of this operation made up of over 70 full-time committed personnel including 63 officers, 6 Sergeants, 2 lieutenants, 3 analysts under the direction of an Analyst Management, a Chief, and a Director. Early results are impressive, and have already prompted a commitment to agency wide roll out planning.

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Graffiti: Tag, You're Out PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Inspector Mark Spooner, South Yorkshire Police (UK)
  • Facilitator: Amy Schapiro, Senior Social Science Analyst, U.S. Department of Justice, COPS Office

Graffiti, and other types of vandalism, accounted for almost 30% of all crime in portions of Barnsley in South Yorkshire. The community also identified graffiti as a priority. The team looked at multiple sources of data to identify the extent of the problem and to determine patterns, and asked Sheffield University to examine the research to better understand the causes and characteristics of graffiti offending. None of the graffiti were gang tags, and most tags were scrawled on walls, shops, bus stop shelters, utility boxes and telephone booths, and likely involved less than 15 seconds to make each tag. Offender detection rates were extremely low. Innovative responses included the application of situational crime prevention to increase the risk to offenders and included a poster campaign, letters to suspects, as well as other countermeasures. Results included reductions in graffiti and increased detection rates. Follow up interviews with offenders identified the countermeasures that seemed to have the most impact.

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Implementing POP: Learning the Hard Way PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Stuart Kirby, Associate Professor, Liverpool University (UK)
  • Ian McPherson, Chief Constable, Norfolk Constabulary (UK)

To the observer the reluctance by many Police Forces to engage with Problem Oriented Policing is difficult to understand. However although the approach may be simple in theory it has become notoriously difficult to implement. Ian McPherson and Stuart Kirby have a wide experience of implementing problem solving in the UK which started with the introduction of POP in the Lancashire Constabulary in 1998, which has since been seen as one of the most successful Police agencies to implement this approach. More recently they have again joined up to implement the approach in the Norfolk Constabulary. In the workshop Ian and Stuart provide an overview of the myths, and blockages they found when implementing POP and provide an overview of how officers respond to the challenges presented to them. Further the workshop explains how the two look at implementation as a problem in itself, which should be meticulously analysed, carefully implemented and rigorously evaluated. The workshop will provide insight to all managers and practitioners who are asked to implement problem solving approaches.

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Managing Crime and Calls for Service in Apartment Complexes PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Officer Alexi Fanopolous, Citrus Heights (California) P.D.
  • Sergeant Ryan Kinnan, Citrus Heights (California) P.D.
  • Facilitator: Gisela Bichler

Apartment living is unique and diverse, both for the residents and those responding to incidents there. The majority of cities have apartment complexes within their jurisdictions, for the City of Citrus Heights, fifty-two apartment complexes within fourteen square miles created a need to address the varied problems associated with apartment living. The Citrus Heights Police Department began applying the problem-solving method to identify problems/nuisance issues affecting local apartment complexes. A shared effort, which combines the Citrus Heights Police Department, property managers and owners, investment firms, and social service groups, was necessary to generate innovative ideas to address the varied problems. The Citrus Heights and Multi-housing Partnership (C.H.A.M.P.) was created with the idea to use education and collaboration in creating safer and thriving apartment living experiences. This workshop will focus on using traditional and non-traditional policing methods, the use of analysis for apartment complex crime/safety issues, partnership building, and taking the necessary steps needed to address those issues.

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Problem Families: Dealing With the Simpsons PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Cheryl Baxter, Project Manager, Blackburn with Darwen Family Intervention Project (UK)
  • Police Constable Lisa Fish, Lancashire Constabulary (UK)
  • Facilitator: Stuart Kirby, Associate Professor, Liverpool University (UK)

Cops sometimes teasingly say when confronted with a chronic problem property or area that "someone should bulldoze the place." This workshop will help police better understand when community development is an appropriate option, and if it is, then how police can most effectively weigh in analytically to ensure that community development actually reduces crime.

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Goldstein Award Winner!

Chula Vista (California) Police Department

Reducing Motel Crime and Disorder PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Karin Schmerler, Supervising Analyst, Chula Vista (California) P.D.
  • David Eisenberg, Professor, George Mason University (Virginia)
  • Captain Don Hunter, Chula Vista (California) P.D.
  • Lead Judge: Johannes Knutsson, Professor, Norwegian Police University

Chula Vista is perfectly situated to accommodate tourists visiting both the San Diego area and Baja, Mexico, but for many years, the City's overnight lodging industry consisted primarily of cheap motels that were havens for crime, drug dealing, parolees, and prostitutes. Police staff researched the problems at motels from a variety of perspectives and concluded that motel managers and owners could effectively control crime and disorder on their properties through good management practices, if they chose to do so. In collaboration with other city agencies, police staff developed an ordinance that enabled the city to hold motels accountable for meeting a 'calls for service-based' public safety performance standard. As a result of the project, calls for service to motels declined 45% and crime declined 68%; in addition, motels reported taking in more revenue and catering less to a local clientele.

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Goldstein Award Finalist!

Greater Manchester Police Service (UK)

Reducing Gang-Related Gun Discharges PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Detective Superintendent Darren Shenton, Greater Manchester Police Service (UK)
  • Chief Superintendent David Keller, Great Manchester Police Service (UK)
  • Lead Judge: Greg Saville, Director, Alternation, LLC

Gang-related gun discharges were rising in Manchester, and so were gang murders. Gang-related tensions were high and deemed to be at a critical point. An analysis of the problem identified trends, times, and 'trigger events'. The approach adopted included innovative operational tactics coupled with new partnership interventions to protect young people at risk of gang violence. Additional responses included assessments of gang members under a multi-agency risk management process. As a result, firearm discharges were reduced by 69.3% and gang-related firearm discharges declined by 92.7%.

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Goldstein Award Finalist!

Manitoba Auto Theft Task Force (Canada)

Reducing Winnipeg's Vehicle Theft PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Rick Linden, Professor, University of Manitoba (Canada)
  • Detective Sergeant Kevin Kavitch, Winnipeg Police Service (Canada)
  • Lead Judge: Ron Glensor, Assistant Chief (Ret.), Reno (Nevada) Police Department

Winnipeg had North America's highest rate of vehicle theft from 2003 to 2007 and reckless driving by the thieves further magnified concern about the problem. The Manitoba Auto Theft Task Force tried several tactics to reduce the problem but despite some temporary successes rates continued to climb. Crime analysis became the core of the new approach, including an examination of police statistics, insurance company statistics, police files, court files, and interviews of police, justice officials, and offenders. It was discovered that most thefts were for joyriding and a detailed picture of patterns, causes and consequences of the thefts emerged. The Task Force's strategy included a tiered approach to at-risk youth, including intensive community supervision of high-risk offenders, and installation of vehicle immobilizers in the highest risk vehicles. Theft rates fell by 29% in 2007, 42% in 2008, and 34% during the early part of 2009 for a total reduction of 75% since the inception of the program. These reductions are far greater than for any other Canadian city or other Manitoba communities.

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Goldstein Award Finalist!

Lancashire Constabulary

The Route to Undoing a Gang PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Police Constable Gareth Pearson, Lancashire Constabulary (UK)
  • Police Constable Iain Mellis, Lancashire Constabulary (UK)
  • Lead Judge: Lieutenant Andy Mills, San Diego (California) Police Department

Research in the UK shows that vandalism and graffiti affects community fear levels and confidence in the police. In the Preston area of Lancashire, an analysis of the graffiti led to the identification of an emerging prominent tag, a link to other vandalism, and ultimately a further link to an emerging youth gang with rapidly expanding membership. Analysis included full identification of all of the gang's members, including comprehensive risk assessments for each, as well as an analysis of risky times for their offending, and the pinpointing of hot spots of their criminal behavior. A multi-agency team created 'offender managers' and tailored interventions to each offender, while the most problematic offenders were identified for focused criminal justice action. Results were significant and included a 51% reduction in crime, significant reductions in vandalism and graffiti, and the dismantling of the gang. The project showed a way to intervene after early identification of a youth gang and a potential route for preventing the emergence of future organized crime gangs.

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Shifting Responsibility for Prevention to Wal-Mart and Others PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Sergeant Bill Leahy, Nassau County (New York) Police Department
  • Facilitator: Michael Scott, Director, Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

On November 28, 2008 a Walmart employee working the Black Friday sale was killed when the doors the Walmart store opened. Patrons rushed into the store, knocking the employee to the ground causing his death. How could this happen?, and what can we do to prevent this from happening again. The Nassau County Police Department, District attorneys office, government agencies and retailers worked together to discuss the challenges, problems and solutions.

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Super Controllers of Crime: Can I Be Your Superman? PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Rana Sampson, Consultant, Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

What's next after the apartment complex owner says he's done all he can to eliminate drug dealing in his apartment complex but he really hasn't. What if the motel management says that it can't raise the room price or request I.D. because corporate won't let it? What do you do if the store won't voluntarily stop selling the 40-ouncers that the chronic inebriates buy? What if some violent offenders are not being held accountable? What if the university won't do enough to reduce rape victimizations? Sounds like you need some super controllers. Learn about who and what they are and how to bring them to life.

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Goldstein Award Finalist!

Warwickshire Police Service (UK)

Trolley Safe: Attempting to Reduce Purse Thefts from Shopping Carts PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Peter Guilluame, Business Crime Prevention Manager, Warwickshire Police Community Protection Team
  • Lead Judge: Lieutenant Andy Mills, San Diego (California) Police Department

In 2006, an analysis of crimes at shops in Warwickshire revealed that 253 involved the stealing of purses or wallets, and 50% of these were stolen in supermarkets. Many purses or wallets were stolen from victims' personal bags or shopping carts while shopping. The project involved engaging partners to design, implement and evaluate a device for the secure storage of customer's bags in a shopping cart. A redesigned cart with a secure area was introduced in a supermarket and evaluated for its use and effectiveness. Nineteen percent of observed customers used the redesigned cart. While fear of bag theft declined, design and maintenance issues were identified. Theft levels, however, remained the same as the previous year, although this was attributed to the short time frame of the evaluation. Even so, none of the thefts were from the refitted shopping carts.

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Using Situational Crime Prevention in Anti-Terrorism Efforts: Manipulating Risk, Effort, Reward, Excuse and Provocation PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Sergeant Tim Schmidt, Anaheim (California) Police Department
  • Detective Dave Wiggins, Anaheim (California) Police Department
  • Sergeant Bill Leahy, Nassau County (New York) Police Department
  • Facilitator: Gisela Bichler, Assistant Professor, California State University, San Bernardino

"Situational Crime Prevention" involves the introduction of managerial and environmental change to reduce the opportunity for crimes to occur. The target is not the criminal but instead the settings in which crimes occur. It is about making criminal action less attractive to offenders. This workshop will focus on the utilization of "Situational Crime Prevention" as part of an agency's terrorism prevention, detection and response plans/strategies.

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