Center for Problem-Oriented Policing

2011 POP Conference Papers

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A CPTED Approach to Reducing Crime and Disorder in Privately Owned Apartment Complexes PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Todd Milburn
  • Marcus Erickson
  • Timothy Mitchell
  • Facilitator: Manny Barthe

The City of Brooklyn Park is a suburb located just north of Minneapolis, MN and has a population of over 75,000 residents. With a number of apartment complexes centrally located in the city, crime patterns have fluctuated in this area over the years. However, in 2010 everything changed when crime trends spiked to unprecedented levels causing significant concerns for residents, politicians, and government leaders. When efforts to work with on site management to reduce crime proved ineffective, police staff went to work to come up with a creative and effective plan of action. Not only did this plan reduce crime significantly, it created open and ongoing lines of communication with key ownership representatives and resulted in significant capital improvements financed through ownership. This plan has become the standard citywide as a proven method to improve communication with private organizations, implement effective crime reduction techniques, and find creative ways to improve overall quality of life for residents and businesses of the City.

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A Situational Approach to Residential Security PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Mike Betten
  • Facilitator: Deborah Weisel

In the summer of 1996, Overland Park was devastated by four home invasions resulting in the sexual assaults of four women. A collaboration between the police department, Edward Wayne Industries (EWI) and the American Society of Industrial Security (ASIS) resulted in considerable safety improvements and reduced crime. The most ambitious initiative involved the implementation of a residential security ordinance which would require homebuilders and contractors to implement a minimum level of door security on all single family dwellings when issued a building permit. In 2010 the OPPD decided to conduct a 10 year assessment of the ordinance. The assessment revealed that security measures implemented showed continued signs of success.

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Goldstein Award Finalist!

Alexandria (VA) Police Dept.

A Strategic Response to Moped Theft PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Nick Ruggiero
  • Matthew Kramarik
  • Lead Judge: Gary Cordner

Between 2009 and 2010, the City of Alexandria experienced a dramatic 214% increase in moped larcenies primarily in an area of the city where residents rely heavily on mopeds as their main source of transportation. In 2010, Officers Matthew Kramarik and Nicholas Ruggiero adopted the departments Strategic Response System (SRS) to combat moped thefts. Using data provided by the crime analysis unit to pinpoint specific trends and other factors associated with moped thefts, a comprehensive response to the problem including target hardening and registration was implemented. Significant reductions in moped thefts resulted from these efforts.

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Addressing the Problem of Prescription Fraud PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Regina LaBelle
  • Mac Venzon
  • Manny Barthe

In the spring of 2009, following the methadone overdose death of a 15-year old boy in the community, the Reno Police Department (RPD) began looking into the issue of prescription drug abuse among youth. The findings were alarming and led the RPD to identify prescription drug abuse as a rapidly growing problem and a top priority for the department. Subsequently, the RPD applied for federal funding from the Bureau of Justice Assistance under the Smart Policing Initiative (SPI). Reno was selected as an SPI site in October of 2009 and has since implemented a comprehensive, evidence-based approach to preventing prescription drug abuse in the community. The focus of this program includes a committed research partner and a thorough evaluation plan. The Reno Police Department's prescription drug abuse prevention program encompasses several facets including the education of healthcare professionals and the public about the dangers of prescription drug abuse, reducing the availability of prescription drugs for abuse through take-back programs and other means, and enforcing laws related to prescription drug diversion and fraud.

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CCTV's Impact on Crime and Disorder PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Nancy LaVigne

This presentation is designed to guide law enforcement agencies and their municipal partners in implementing and employing public surveillance systems in a manner that will have the greatest impact on public safety. Drawing from a three-city evaluation of public surveillance use in the United States, it details the various aspects of a system that are integral in yielding a cost-beneficial impact on crime, including budgetary considerations, how best to monitor cameras, and the role that video footage plays in investigations and prosecutions. It also highlights the most prominent lessons learned in an effort to guide jurisdictions that are currently investing in cameras for public safety purposes, as well as to inform those that are contemplating doing so.

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Chronic Mental Health Consumer Stabilization Initiative PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Mike Lee
  • Lawrence Pate
  • Ann MacLeod

In 2007, the Houston Police Department had three deadly force encounters with persons with a history of severe mental illness and numerous prior contacts with officers. Statistical data was used to identify a small number of problematic mental health consumers with a disproportionately high number of encounters with police. A partnership was formed between the Houston Police Department, Mental Health Mental Retardation Authority of Harris County, and the City of Houston Health and Human Services Department to form the Chronic Consumer Stabilization Initiative (CCSI). During the first six months of this program, there was a 70% reduction in contacts with these persons with serious mental illness and the Houston Police Department.

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Comprehensive Responses to Crime and Disorder Associated with Large Produce Markets PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Freddie Cruz
  • Felix Delgado
  • Leon Leonard
  • Facilitator: Tamara Madensen

The Allapattah produce market district has been overwhelmed over the years with problems including crime, a homeless population, health concerns, traffic congestion and environmental issues. These problems demanded a series of responses beyond the more traditional law and code enforcement methodologies. Officers assigned to the departments problem solving team (PST) worked closely with business operators and regulatory agencies and implemented a number of responses which resulted in a tremendous improvement in health and sanitation problems and virtually eliminated crime at the market and neighborhood.

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Crime and Disorder in Apartment Complexes PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Karin Schmerler
  • Roxana Kennedy
  • Carol Trujillo

The Chula Vista Police Department is in the midst of completing a multi-year project to reduce crime and disorder in the city's 340 apartment complexes with 8 or more units. To date, project staff -- including a deputy city attorney assigned exclusively to the project -- have conducted an extensive review of pertinent case law, local ordinances, and efforts in other cities; identified a subset of properties with the highest call for service per unit ratios; surveyed more than 2,000 residents and 150 property owners; met individually with more than 25 operators of high CFS complexes to provide data on each complex and share best practices; held a number of on-site community meetings at problem complexes; and began developing real time, web-based CFS reports for apartments that are available to the public. Key project findings will be shared and suggestions on additional promising responses will be sought from workshop attendees. Also, links to sample resident and manager surveys; apartment-specific CFS reports; crime-prevention fliers on domestic/family violence in apartments (the top call type); apartment-specific tip-sheets; and, sample apartment management best practices recommendations will be provided at this workshop.

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Integration of Problem Analysis in Response to Crime Issues PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Rachel Boba Santos
  • Roberto Santos

This presentation is for police professionals who are seeking to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability of their agency's problem solving and crime reduction efforts. The presentation will outline a framework for institutionalizing problem solving into a police organization's day-to-day practices by providing clear actionable crime analysis products and a foundation for holding personnel accountable for conducting problem solving through a structured set of meetings. It will also include specific examples and a practical discussion of the challenges and successes of implementation of these practices from a number of police agencies around the United States.

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Introduction to Problem-Oriented Policing PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Presenter: Michael Scott

Are you new or relatively new to problem solving and problem-oriented policing (POP)? This is the workshop for you. Hear what you need to know about the basic principles and methods of problem solving and POP. This workshop will also give you the information you need to help you decide which other workshops you should attend at this conference.

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Last Call for Unsafe Bars: Dayton (OH) Police Dept. PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Bill Parsons
  • Shawn Huey
  • Facilitator: Julie Wartell

The City of Dayton experienced a significant increase in crime and nuisance problems at downtown bars and nightclubs. Crime analysis revealed that 40% of all of downtown Dayton's violent crime occurred at these locations. The assaults and subsequent disturbances stemming from poorly managed liquor permit holder premises also utilized an excessive amount of community resources. Analysis also revealed that a surprising number of new bar or nightclub owners actually had little knowledge regarding bar operations or effective place management. In 2009, the downtown policing division created a program called Bar Safe to address problem liquor permit premises. The programs goals are to obtain voluntary compliance from bar and nightclub owners and reduce assaults. Multifaceted responses, based upon POP guides and industry best practices were initiated to achieve those goals. An assessment of the crime statistics revealed a 50% reduction in serious assaults while minor assaults rose only slightly, even with an increase in downtown bars.

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Goldstein Award Finalist!

San Marcos (TX) Police Dept.

Noise in Neighborhoods: Achieving Community Together (ACT) PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Howard Williams
  • Lisa Dvorak
  • Joanne Smith
  • Michelle Lopez
  • Lead Judge: Gary Cordner

In town and gown communities, shifting composition of neighborhoods from full-time homeowner residents to part-time student renters can be a recipe for cross-cultural conflict and tension, particularly with noise and disturbances from loud parties late at night. Late night noise adversely affects the quality of life in neighborhoods, reduces property values, and makes neighborhoods less appealing places to live. Because traditional enforcement efforts to curb noisy gatherings resulted in no significant improvements, and because students felt they were being treated unfairly, the police became trapped between conflicting community expectations regarding enforcement policies. Exercising the SARA model of problem solving, police gained a new understanding of neighborhood dynamics, redesigned their response to noise complaints, and decreased enforcement efforts while significantly reducing the number of complaints regarding loud noise in neighborhoods.

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Peek-a-Boo: Responses to Hidden Crime Places PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • John Eck
  • Tamara Madensen

Police have known for some time that crime and disorder concentrate at a relatively few places, while most places are virtually crime free. We know this as the "iron law of troublesome place". In this session participants will look more closely at the concept of places and draw on the insights of police and researchers to examine the variety of places. We will see that although that it is true that places forming crime hot spots is vitally important, there are other types of crime places that do not show up on standard crime maps. We discuss four types of crime places: crime sites, convergent settings, comfort spaces, and corrupting spots. Each presents a different challenge to police, both in terms of problem analysis and response. Further, each plays a role at different stages in crime processes. Participants should come prepared to share their insights into places: how you detected difficult to find places, how these places were involved in crime or disorder problems, and what was done to address these places.

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Policing Problems Associated with Abandoned Buildings PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Jon Shane

Abandoned buildings and lots are a subcategory of the larger problem of physical disorder in a community and may act as precursors for larger issues when they attract vandals, are used as "stash houses" for narcotics, guns, stolen property, prostitution and other crimes. They may also accumulate trash and attract squatters or homeless persons seeking shelter, particularly in cold weather regions. Deterioration may lead to a structurally unsound building, which presents a serious community hazard. Although a problem, abandoned properties do present opportunities for cities to reuse the property to its advantage by restoring economic viability, building affordable housing and allocating open space for community gardens, plazas, parks, and recreation.

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Reducing Gang-related Crimes in Maravilla Public Housing PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Carlos Avila
  • Betsy Lindsay
  • Facilitator: Steve Pitts

The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department (LASD) and the Housing Authority of the County of Los Angeles (HACoLA) initiated a Community Policing Program to address crime and nuisance issues in a densely populated public housing site where families were affected by many socio-economic factors. The workshop will focus on the SARA process utilized to successfully reduce violent, property and drug crimes at the public housing site over the past 20 years. LASD will share the myriad of crime reduction strategies employed in response to the scanning and analysis phases. Participants will also learn about the integrated model of LASD and HACoLA management of the Community Policing Program and the methods used to assess Community Policing Program outcomes.

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Repeat Offending PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Nick Tilley
  • Facilitator: Rachel Boba

An overview of evidence relating to the significance of repeat offending patterns for problem oriented policing is presented this session. The relationship of repeat offending to other forms of crime concentration is also addressed. Basic approaches to reducing repeat offending are outlined, alongside evidence of their effectiveness. Key factors to consider in deciding whether and how to address repeat offending in the conduct of problem-oriented policing initiatives are discussed.

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Goldstein Award Finalist!

Enfield (UK) Community Safety Partnership

Safe as Houses: Reducing Residential Burglary PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Ian Clark
  • Andrea Clemons
  • Lead Judge: Stuart Kirby

In Enfield during 2008/09 there was an increase of 24% in domestic burglary. The district had the highest volume of all London districts (1 in 20 offences) and had the 8th highest rate of offending nationally. Analysis revealed that a small number of neighborhoods had suffered enduringly high levels of offending for many years - almost 1 in 5 offences occurred in just 4.6% of the districts geographical area. Exploiting a good level of information on geography of offending, and most prevalent targets, a response was designed to control access (in areas of rear entry offending aided by alleyways) and to harden targets (by offering locksmith and home security services). Work was exclusive to long term persistent hotspots. Over 3,000 households were targeted for intervention (2.5% of district housing stock) whilst 88 alleyway gating schemes were implemented. There was a 29% reduction in the intervention area throughout 2010. The change in level of offending within this area contributed to over 40% of the districts overall burglary reduction in 2009/10 and over 70% in 2010/11. A total of £231k was allocated to the scheme whilst money saved from reduced burglary within the intervention area currently equates to £934k.

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Goldstein Award Finalist!

Enfield (UK) Community Safety Partnership

Taking Action Against Gang Violence PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Ian Kibblewhite
  • Barry Green
  • Iain Agar

Following several youth murders in 2008 in the district of Enfield, three of which were arguably gang-related, widespread media attention drew inferences with a burgeoning gang culture locally. Over 50% of residents identified weapon and gang crime as a local priority. This was coupled with a 12% increase in serious youth violence. Early enforcement to target gangs had little impact on their longevity whilst there was also difficulty in disaggregating individual offences from those carried out collectively due to an overuse of "gang related". Analysis revealed that criminality levels varied significantly and therefore we began to focus on prominent individuals, locally defined and selected, rather than collectives. Information from multiple agencies was made available through enhanced information sharing procedures. Furthermore, responsibility for the management of offenders was shared across suitable agencies, as oppose to law enforcement alone. Supplementary works such as raising awareness and understanding, delivering prevention programmes and interventions were also coordinated through a multi-agency working group named the 'Gangs Action Group'. The group manages locally defined and identified gang members or affiliates deemed as high-risk. Offences committed by the top 15 nominals decreased by 44% in 2010.

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Goldstein Award Winner!

Transport for London

Taking the Wheels off Bicycle Theft - A Situational Approach PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Sophie Brown
  • Titus Halliwell
  • Lead Judge: Johannes Knutsson

London's transport system is unable to keep up with demands and other transport options such as cycles are necessary. Crime data reveals 23,317 cycles were reported stolen during 2009/10. Analysis identified a number of contributory factors including failure to lock bikes, poor records of ownership, easy resale via websites. In partnership with London's policing agencies formed a Cycle Taskforce (CTF), made up of 30 officers dedicated to tacking the theft problem. A situational crime prevention approach included target hardening bikes against potential theft, increasing risks to offenders and enforcement at theft hotspots. In 2010/11, following months of targeted activity, there were 22,064 reported cycle thefts resulting in a decrease of 5.4% (1253 fewer offences) than the previous year. Efforts to properly mark 13,000 bikes and positive media stories are believed to have contributed to the reduction as well.

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Goldstein Award Finalist!

Dayton (OH) Police Dept.

Urban High School Disorder Reduction Project PDF

Presenters / Facilitators:

  • Richard Biehl
  • Chris Williams
  • David White
  • Darlene Powell
  • Lead Judge: Greg Saville

Belmont High School is located in an urban area in the City of Dayton. The school is 85% economically disadvantaged, 20% limited English proficient (12 languages) and 28.1% students with disabilities. For the past 10 years, it was the number one violent crime location in the city and diminished Dayton PD's capacity to answer calls for service in other areas of the district. Negative network and print media coverage highlighted problems. As a result, the Dayton Police Department created a partnership with Dayton Public Schools and the Montgomery County Juvenile Court to focus on high-rate offenders. Police worked in collaboration with Belmont High School staff and as a result of their efforts reduced crimes significantly at the school and surrounding neighborhoods. Neither extra staffing nor overtime was utilized by the Dayton Police Department for this project.

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